In employment statistics due to the diversity of data sources, accounting methods and the surveyed population, the same phenomenon is described by numerically differing data. Data discrepancies – even in case of basic data – may exceed the statistically accepted rate, therefore information deriving from various data sources are not interchangeable. Table contents and methodology of this Chapter follow classification by data sources.
The Hungarian Central Statistical Office has introduced a new statistical survey in January 1992 to obtain current information on the labour force status of the Hungarian population. The Labour Force Survey (LFS) is a household survey which provides quarterly information on non-institutional population aged 15–74. The aim of the survey is to observe the employment and unemployment according to the international statistical recommendation based on the concepts and definitions recommended by the ILO independently from the existing national labour regulations or their changes.
In the LFS the population surveyed is divided according to their economic activity performed in the reference week (the week running from Monday to Sunday.
Employed persons: those persons, who worked one hour or more for pay, profit or payment in kind in job or business (including farm), during the reference week, or worked one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. unpaid family workers), or were employees who had a job from which they were temporarily absent all of survey week.
Unemployed persons: who had not worked on the reference week, and had no job to be away from temporarily; who had been actively looking for work in four weeks before the survey; who would be ready for work within two weeks, if had found a job, and those who found a job to start work within 30 days before 2002, or within 90 days from 2003.
Economically actives: employed and unemployed persons, entering the labour force market.
Economically inactives: those who had no job on the reference week or regular work for pay; who had not been looking for a job, or even if they had, would not have been able to start the job.
Passive unemployed: out of the economically inactive persons those who want a job, and could enter a job within two weeks, but who have given up any active search for work, because they consider it hopeless.
Unemployment rate: the ratio of unemployed persons to the economically active population of corresponding age.
Employment rate: the ratio of employed persons to the population aged 15–74.
From 1992, on the average, nearly 24 thousand households were designated to the sample of the Labour Force Survey, while since 1998 interviewers have visited nearly 38 thousand households quarterly in order to collect information, according to the recommendations of the International Labour Organization (ILO), on the economic activity of the population aged 15–74 living there. Between 1992 and 2002 the survey was conducted each month in the week comprising the 19th day of the month, while since 2003 it has been conducted continuously covering each week of the month (quarter, year). Released data are estimated quarterly (annual) averages.
From 2003 adjustment of LFS data happens on the basis of 2001 census. At the same time data of 1998–2002 are also reweighted.
Since 1994 the jack-knife technique has been used in sampling error computations. The computations have been carried out by the VPLX software developed by Robert E. Fay at the US Bureau of Census, Washington D. C. The look-up table show sampling errors at 95% confidence-level regarding the year 2011.
Rounding of the data was made electronically – without any correction – therefore the sum of the part figures does not always equal to the rounded value of the total.
Till 2008, the economic activity of employers was classified according to NACE Rev.1.1, however, in 2008, data were published according to NACE Rev.2 as well. Since 2009, the classification of economic activity has been made only according to NACE Rev.2.
Until 2010, the classification of occupations was done on the basis of HSCO-93, however from 1st January 2011 data have been published only on the basis of HSCO-08.
The survey was done via paper-and-pencil interviewing till the first quarter of 2012. Afterwards, the continuous transition to the computer aided data collection has begun.
Source: HCSO, Labour market trends
The European Union ordered for its Member States (Regulation 1893/2006/EC) to apply compulsorily the new classification of economic activities NACE '08 in statistical data collections and records from 2008 on. Since January 2008 data have been collected according to NACE '08 but in 2008 they were still published according to NACE '03. Data processed also according to NACE '08 were published in January 2009 for the first time.
Monthly statistics prepared on the basis of NACE '08 could be somewhat influenced by the fact that in 2008 data providers used continuously the opportunities offered by the new classification. Thus, along with the more precise classification there were some movements among the special sections in the base year (2008).
Employees: persons in full-time employment with the employer for a period exceeding 5 working days (since 1999 for min. 60 actually worked hours according to the work contract), including outworkers and those who are working members of partnerships or co-operatives and get salary (wage) for the work done. From 2004 the number of employees is including the number of employee who engaged in a second or more jobs. The statistical staff number of employees includes persons who are in employment or other labour relationship with the employer with the exceptions of those, who are on leave for certain purposes (e.g. maternity leave, different child-care provisions, active military service, sick-leave longer than 3 months, (since 1999 longer than 1 month, unpaid leave etc.).
Average earnings: the per capita monthly average of earnings paid within the frame of wage costs to full-time employees. Gross earnings: the total of all earnings including basic wage with the personal income tax, contributions to health and retirement schemes, the employee's contribution and other wage elements paid under different titles to employees (wage supplement, bonuses, premiums, 13th month salary). Average net earnings: an indicator calculated from the average gross earnings subtracting the employee's contribution, the personal income tax, and the health and retirement contributions, taking into consideration the contribution threshold as well, according to the prevailing valid rates. Since 1999 the impact of the children related tax concession introduced in that year has not been included.
Earning by SNA involve: direct remuneration and bonuses, payments for time not worked, benefits in kind.
Real income index: is estimated as the ratio of gross and net income index to the consumer price index.
Family tax benefit adjusted net and real earnings, 2011: The change in the system of personal income tax in 2011, in addition to introducing flat personal income tax, provides an opportunity for families raising children to take advantage of tax allowance depending on the number of children.
Since 1998 enterprises with more than 49 employees (yearly survey more than 19 employed persons) are observed on full-scope and enterprises with employees between 5 and 49 persons are observed on representative basis (yearly survey assigned 19 or less employed persons). Budgetary organs are observed on full-scope basis, and similarly to previous years, also non-profit institutions supply data.
Since 2006 the missing data of non-respondent corporations involved in the yearly survey and non-assigned enterprises have been taken into account by estimation based the tax records.
Job vacancy: is defined as a post (newly created, unoccupied or about to become vacant within 3 moths) for which the employer is taking active steps to find a suitable candidate from outside the enterprise concerned. Posts to be filled only by subcontractors, unpaid apprentices, returns from paid or unpaid leave or internal transfer of existing employees are not considered as job vacancies.
Job vacancy rate: number of job vacancy/ (number of job vacancy + occupied jobs) *100
Data source of subannual labour survey: data relate to enterprises with more than 49 employees on full scope basis and enterprises with 5–49 employees on representative basis, asigned non profit institutions and all budgetary and social security institutions by headquarter
Since 2006 the annual statistical staff number data in the tables have related to the total economy (together with micro-enterprises), and the data of enterprises not obliged to provide information have been imputed from the available tax records applying different estimation methods. Data on average wages and salaries do not include data of micro-enterprises with 1–4 employees. Annual labour data broken down by regions are given according to local units and relate to the territory of the county.
Registered jobseekers: persons who meet the conditions of entering into employment, are not full-time students or entitled to old-age pension, who do not receive rehabilitation annuity, are not in employment relationship except for odd jobs and neither perform any income producing activity, who co-operate with the national employment service in the interest of getting a job and who are registered there as jobseekers.
Registered career-starter jobseekers: among the registered jobseekers, persons younger than 25 years - with tertiary education younger than 30 years - who are registered with the competent local office of NES, meet the conditions of entering into employment and who did not obtain eligibility for jobseekers' allowance after finishing their studies.
Jobseekers' allowance recipients: among registered jobseekers those who met their obligation to pay contribution prior to becoming jobseeker and thus, they are entitled to jobseekers' allowance under the conditions defined in the Employment Act (Act IV/1991). The amendment to the Act on 1 November 2005 expands the entitlement to ex-enterpreneurs as of 1 January 2006. On 1 September 2011, the conditions of receiving jobseekers' allowance changed.
Recipients of jobseekers' assistance among registered jobseekers those who (a) exhausted their (at least 180 days long) entitlement for jobseekers' allowance, (b) had minimum 200 days, maximum 364 days employment before their registration and (c) who have max. 5 years till the retirement age and have exhausted their (at least 140 days long) entitlement for jobseekers' allowance. On 1 September 2011, the above mentioned types (a) and (b) of jobseekers' assistance ceased and the name and conditions of receiving type (c) changed.
From 2009 the new IT system introduced in the Hungarian PES makes possible to use new methods to determine the inflows to and outflows from the number of jobseekers' allowance recipients.
1. Now we can sort out from the inflow the number of those who come back after the suspension of allowance and from the outflow the number of those who just start their suspending period.
The main reasons for suspension are:
Short-term jobs o childcare allowance and pregnancy and confinement benefit o participation in labour market training
2. Now we can also count the number of entrants who actually entered into the allowance system in an earlier period, but the completion of their documents lasted for a longer time.
Recipients of social benefits: registered jobseekers of active age in a disadvantageous situation on the labour market who are provided social benefits in cash to complete or substitute their income. From 1 January 2009 the beneficiaries of regular social assistance were classified into two groups: recipients of regular social assistance and recipients of availability support. From 1 January 2011 availability support gave place to wage replacement allowance, a new form of benefit. From 1 September 2011 the denomination "wage replacement allowance" changed to employment substitution support. (Act III of 1993 on Social Administration and Social Benefits.)
Number of unfilled vacancies: the number of registered vacancies at the National Employment Service at the end of the month.
Methodological source: Monthly report titled Information on the Main data on the labour market situation based on the administrative records of the National Employment Service monthly report titled (NES, Budapest, 2011).
Source of data: National Employment Service.