Registered enterprises: units which according to administrative registrations legally exist at the date of survey and have a tax number, including those under bankruptcy, liquidation and dissolution proceedings at the reference date.
Active enterprises: an enterprise is considered as active if in the reference year it has turnover or employment.The definition follows the methodology of the Eurostat business demography statistics.
Sole proprietors: private persons falling under the competency of the Act on private businesses, and also those who carry out business activity and have tax number (e.g. free-lance professions). In case of active sole proprietors the definition covers only private persons falling under the competency of the Act on private businesses.
Companies and partnerships: the total number of companies and partnerships contains both the number of companies with legal entity and the number of partnerships without legal entity. The definition "companies and partnerships" contains all enterprises except sole proprietors.
Real births of enterprises: An enterprise considered as real new enterprise if it is active in a given year and it was not active in the previous two years. Enterprise birth with predecessor is not counted as a real birth.
Real deaths of enterprises: An enterprise considered as real dead in a given year if it is ceased its activities and is not reactivated within two years. Enterprise death with successor is not counted as a real death.
Survivor enterprises: An enterprise is considered to have survived if it is active in the year of birth and the following year(s), or also considered to have survived if it have ceased to be active, but its activity has been taken over by another enterprise.
The applied activity classification of the registered and the active enterprises follows the NACE Rev.2. The enterprises are classified by the HCSO according to their principal statistical activity. The statistical main activity is identified as the activity, which at factor cost contributes most to the total value added of the enterprise concerned.
The classification by legal forms of registered enterprises is based on an assorting which is valid since 1 January 2011. HCSO Presidential Release 8/2010. (VIII.25.) – on Statistical Code and Nomenclature Elements – set guidelines for classifying economic organizations by legal forms.
At active enterprises, classification by legal form is continuously based on the classification in force since 1 June 2002. Classification by legal form at enterprises was published by the president of HCSO in HCSO release Nr 9001/2002 (SK 3) on the nomenclature and elements of the statistical code.
Size classes: From 1 January 2004 the HSCO uses the number of persons occupied definition instead of the number of employees. In case of sole proprietors the number of persons occupied consists the sole proprietors and the helping family members as well. If a registered sole proprietor has only number of employees data, they are transformed to number of persons occupied data by adding 1. If in case of the companies and partnerships only the number of employees data are available they are currently not transformed.
In case of active enterprises, in line with the methodological recommendations of Eurostat, the way to determine the number of persons employed has been changed from 2007 onwards. According to the recommendation of Eurostat, an enterprise that carries on an economic activity have to have at least 1 employee, therefore, in case of all enterprises with a staff of 0, the staff is increased by 1.
At enterprises, classification by legal form is currently based on the classification in force since 1 January 2002. Classification by legal from at enterprises was published by the president of HCSO in HCSO release Nr 9001/2002 (SK 3) on the nomenclature and elements of the statistical code.
Source of data: for registered and active enterprises is the Business Register (BR) of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. In the case of Business Demography the data the BR are completed with the information of different statistical data collections and with administrative sources (e.g. Tax and Financial Control Administration).
Nonprofit organization: according to the international definition an organization must fundamentally comply with five criteria to be unambiguously classified as nonprofit:
|1.||institutionalization (separate legal personality);|
|2.||organizational independence from the government sector;|
|4.||prohibiting dividend payments (or profit sharing);|
Political parties or similar organizations are excluded.
Organization features: nonprofit organizations – by their features – may be classified into three types.
|1.||Classical civic organizations: private foundations, associations|
|2.||Interest representation organizations: public bodies (boards), trade unions, professional employer interest representations, professional associations;|
|3.||Other nonprofit organizations: public foundations, public benefit companies.|
Calculated number of full-time employees: full-time (main job holder) employees plus the half of part-time (main job holder) employees and one tenth of non main job holder employees. This indicator translates different employment types (full-time, part time employees) into full time employee units.
Calculated number of contract employees: a ratio of contracted and paid annual assignment fees to calculated full time employee average salary (1 million 736 thousand HUF in 2005, 1 million 745 thousand HUF in 2006, 1 million 808 thousand HUF in 2007) paid in the nonprofit sector. This calculated indicator expresses outsourcing (assignment contracts) related labour savings by replaced full time positions.
Calculated number of volunteer employees (CNVE): ratio of estimated annual volunteer working hours to annual working hours associated with a full time employee. Estimated wage saving: multiplying CNVE with the annual average wage paid for a calculated full time employee in the nonprofit sector. These calculated values express – through replaced full time positions and wage amounts – volunteering related labour substitution.
The aim of the Foreign AffiliaTes Statistics (FATS) is to measure the effects and degree of ultimate foreign control in particular countries and sectors. FATS statistics facilitate comparing the management and efficiency of Hungarian and foreign-owned affiliates. Foreign-owned companies are to be classified according to the country of the ultimate controlling institutional unit.
Inward FATS statistics contain the number of enterprises as well as indicators of prerformance, investment, employment and R&D.
For the compilation of inward FATS data we use activity and geographical breakdowns, based on the regulation on NACE Rev.2 and the regulation of the European Council on statistics of foreign affiliates. The basis of the geographical breakdown is the country register, the usage of which is regulated by Direction No. 2/1997 (SK 1.) of the President of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO).
The compilation of Inward FATS statistics is mainly based on secondary data processing. We have two ways to define foreign ownership. For huge enterprises we use the 'Annual report on capital investment' (questionnaire No. 2168 in OSAP (National Programme for Statistical Data Collection)), issued by the Central Bank of Hungary , while in case of the others we use tax returns.
We take over the values of data from statistics on the annual performances of enterprises, investment statistics (annual integrated business statistics, 9 OSAP questionnaires and R&D statistics (OSAP questionnaire No. 1074).
The country codes of enterprises having ultimate control over resident affiliates are available in different ways. First we take the information from the EuroGroup Register (EGR) or we collect them through the annual integrated business statistics questionnaires. We either search the missing data on the internet, or for the small enterprises we impute them by mathematical methodology.
We supply Inward FATS data to Eurostat and OECD yearly. Eurostat publishes our data in NewCronos.
Eurostat tenders helped our preparations for the obligatory data transmission (from reference year 2007). In the frame of a PHARE project we compiled our first test data of inward FATS for reference years 2003, respectively. Since then we have had Inward FATS data every year.
We have compiled Inward FATS data from already existing data sources. The only exceptions were the country codes of enterprises having ultimate control on a resident affiliate, which we searched for the data on internet. We could not find for the country codes of the whole population, so till 2006 the coverage is not 100%.