Switch-over area: the switch-over term from the traditional agriculture to the ecological agriculture is two years on the same area.
Mineral: homogeneous constituent of the earth crust with definite chemical composition and characteristic crystal system originated under natural conditions.
Mineral raw material: mineral matters, i. e. totality of raw materials and energy sources usable for society at the level of technological development at any time. This exploitation, processing and use generally affect adversely the environment.
Fossil fuel: energy source formed of remnants of died-off organisms, animals and/or plants.
Prospective resource: estimated quantity of mineral raw material of stockpile of raw material by geological consideration. the prospective resource serves for determination of future development concepts and exploration research.
Water resources: total volume of water can be found in the space at a given time. On the basis of occurrence in the space, water resources can be divided into three groups: water resource on ground level, water resource in air layer, and water resource under the surface in different depths.
Surface water resource: Dynamic water resource of the given segment of water courses and naturally flowing lakes (or stagnant water). Its main features, from the aspect of water resources management, the yearly and monthly averages calculated from the prevailing water output, and the values of different occurence of water quantity of small water courses.
Subsurface water resource: water resources management's feature of reserved and flowing water resource in the deeper stratums of defined territory. (Subsurface water resource is part of the territory's whole water resources.)
Water base: designated area or subsurface space utilised by water withdrawal works, and the abstractable water resources, together with operating.
Water use: an activity whose consequence is the influence of downflow, flow features, quantity, and quality, as well as bed and bank of the water in order to utilise it.
Droughty index (PDI): a ratio of temperature and amount of precipitation to characterise the degree of drought (non-droughty area where PDI is under 6,0°C/100 mm; extraordinary droughty area where PDI is above 12°C/100 mm).
Forest area: land area over 1500 m2 covered by forest trees, bushes and used for forest management.
Forests covered by trees: area covered by species of trees not included the clear cutting area, forestation area, shrubby.
Growing stock: gross wood volume of growing stock covered forest stands.
Data refer to emissions originating from anthropogen sources, (industrial, traffic, agricultural and communal). Emission sources can be categorised as stationary, diffuse and mobile sources. The industrial and other important emitters that are obliged to declare emission data, report data of their yearly pollutant emissions based on survey or calculation.
The smaller sources (e.g. households) and the emissions of the mobile sources are determined by statistical way, with model calculations. Data of the national emissions pattern survey, in the majority of cases, are determined by consumption of primary fuels. Since 1991 the road traffic emissions is calculated by a model taken into consideration the traffic technical and motor vehicle technical data too.
Pollutants emitted in the largest quantities (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and particulates) are tested for ages, so the reported emission data meet probably the real. Reliability of calculations concerning pollutants observed by shorter time are not always adaquate.
The value of carbon dioxide emissions are in the gross, this include all sources of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, without taking into account carbon sequestration in forests.
Sewage: water containing more or less organic and inorganic pollutants originated from drinking, household, industrial, agricultural, institutional water utilisation, consumption, i.e. all water whose physico-chemical and biological characteristics are changed by utilisation.
Suitably treated waste water: waste water not contained such amounts of pollutants why penalty to be paid. Its quality after the treatment fit to relevant limit values.
Non-treated waste water: waste water not going through any treatment process, and discharging directly outlet to the reservoir. Mechanicalpretreatment do not count treatment.
Biological waste water treatment: process that employs aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms and result in decanted effluents and separated sludge containing microbial mass together with pollutants. Biological treatment processes are also used in combination and/or in conjunction with mechanical and advanced unit operations.
Advanced waste water treatment: process capable of reducing specific constituents in waste water or sludge not normally achieved by other treatment options. It focuses on the elimination of nitrogen and phosphorus using biological and/or chemical, and physical methods. Advanced treatment technology includes for example chemical coagulation, flocculation and precipitation, break-point chlorination, stripping, mixed media filtration, micro-screening, selective ion exchange, activated carbon adsorption, reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration, electro-flotation. Advanced treatment processes are also used in combination and/or in conjunction with mechanical and advanced unit operations.
Municipal solid waste: household waste and all other types of waste – generated first of all in institutions and enterprises – which have a similar composition and can thus be removed and disposed of together with that.
Municipal solid waste removed by public services covers only the quantity removed by public services, so it does not include e.g. the quantity of waste removed to order based on individual contracts.
Liquid municipal waste: liquid waste which is not collected by public sewerage network. The temporarily stored liquid waste is regularly transported.
Hazardous waste: according to the Act XLIII of 2000 the hazardous waste is such waste which, or whose any component or decomposed substance possess any defined dangerous character; and the dangerous substance is represented by the level of concentrations endangering the wildlife, human life and health, and any environmental medium; and in the case of not suitable disposal and treatment cause damaging impact.
The amount of hazardous waste does not contain the amount of red mud generated, because, from 2004 red mud is not classified as hazardous waste, according to the EWC codes.
Ambient air quality (immission) data of settlements: the Inspectorates for Environment, Nature and Water control the quality of the air regularly in about 100 settlements of the country. The network uses two sorts of survey station type for the ambient air quality surveys, which are complementary but not substitute to each other.
|I.||Manual network: the samplings occurred in the case of gases by semi-automatic sampling instruments, in the case of suspended particulates by particulate sampling instruments and in case of settling dust by collect vessel procedure. Each pollutant is analysed after sampling and transport to the laboratory. The survey results represent 24 hours (in the case of settling dust 30 days) averages in summary of towns and after this will being made the yearly-averages.|
|II.||Monitoring network: the samplings simultaneously with the analysis are occurred by equipments, installed in the continuously working monitoring stations or survey buses, and provided prompt results. The survey results represent hourly averages and the overall data concerning the yearly-term will be calculated on the basis of this time series.|
Before the year 2002 the National Public Health and Medical Officers' Service operated the network, the new legislation in 2001 assign the task to the Ministry of Environment and Water. Data of both networks are collected, treated, estimated and stored by the Air Quality Data Centre of the National Reference Centre and Laboratory of the Directorate for Environment, Nature and Water. In some towns there are differences between the results of components, which are surveyed in both network. The reason, besides the difference of the survey method is that the data of the manual network in some settlements are based on the averages of more than one surveying site, and the data of the monitoring system represent only one survey site in every case.
In this publication data of some industrial settlements and county seats from the manual network, and the data of monitoring stations representing the air quality on settlements in the surroundings of the stations are reported.
In this publication the average concentration data of the K-puszta, Farkasfa, Nyírjes and Fertő-Hanság stations, which have been working since 1973 in K-puszta and since 1997 Farkasfa, Nyírjes and Fertő-Hanság, are reported. Source of data is the Hungarian Meteorological Service.
Qualification of water samples from bathpool: microbiological qualification according to the 13690–3:1991 Hungarian Standard in 37/1996. (X.18) NM Regulation amended by the 17/2002. (IV.12.) EüM Regulation, chemical qualification according to the thresholds in 37/1996. NM Regulation amended by 17/2002. EüM Regulation considering the ME–10–204:1993 Technical Order.
Examination of baths: qualification of bathing water by bacteriological tests, to HS 13690–3:1989 according.
National park: a major landscape having country specific characteristics and endowments not essetially disturbed, where joint presence of plant and animal species as well as geographical relief/terrain represent special importance for science, public education and social welfare/recreation.
Landscape protection region: a major area or landscape served for conservation and maintainance of the nature protected values and the favourable natural property.
Nature conservation reserves: area served for conservation and maintainance of the nature protected values, as well as the opened up caves and its superficial area.
Environmental protection investments are all investment expenditures resulting from actions and activities which have as their prime objective the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and any other degradation of the environment.
End-of-pipe investments are additional technical installations that do not affect the production process itself, they operate independently of or are identifiable parts added to the production facilities, treat pollution that has been generated, prevent the emissions or spread of the pollutants or measure the level of pollution (monitoring).
Process-integrated investments are investments where a production process or installation is adapted or changed such that it generates fewer emissions or pollutants than in the absence of the technique. These are generally preventive measures. A process integrated technique can be implemeted by adapting an existing installation, the environmental investment is then the total cost of the adaption. It can also be implemented by installing a new production installation in which the design takes account of environmental demands, the environmental investment consist of the extra investment compared with the available cheaper alternative.
From 2003 a representative survey was carried out for the local authorities while the rest of the NACE industry L was covered by a full scope survey.
Data have been made full-scope by simple grossing up method. Non-response was dealt with in the course of grossing up from the year 2003. The standard error has been calculated in the traditional way.
Environmental taxes are those taxes whose tax base is a physical unit that has a proven negative impact on the environment.