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5. ENVIRONMENT

Natural resources

Switch-over area: the switch-over term from the traditional agriculture to the ecological agriculture is two years on the same area.

Mineral resources

Mineral: homogeneous constituent of the earth crust with definite chemical composition and characteristic crystal system originated under natural conditions.

Mineral raw material: mineral matters, i. e. totality of raw materials and energy sources usable for society at the level of technological development at any time. This exploitation, processing and use generally affect adversely the environment.

Fossil fuel: energy source formed of remnants of died-off organisms, animals and/or plants.

Prospective resource: estimated quantity of mineral raw material of stockpile of raw material by geological consideration. the prospective resource serves for determination of future development concepts and exploration research.

Water resources, water uses

Water resources: total volume of water can be found in the space at a given time. On the basis of occurrence in the space, water resources can be divided into three groups: water resource on ground level, water resource in air layer, and water resource under the surface in different depths.

Surface water resource: Dynamic water resource of the given segment of water courses and naturally flowing lakes (or stagnant water). Its main features, from the aspect of water resources management, the yearly and monthly averages calculated from the prevailing water output, and the values of different occurence of water quantity of small water courses.

Subsurface water resource: water resources management's feature of reserved and flowing water resource in the deeper stratums of defined territory. (Subsurface water resource is part of the territory's whole water resources.)

Water base: designated area or subsurface space utilised by water withdrawal works, and the abstractable water resources, together with operating.

Water use: an activity whose consequence is the influence of downflow, flow features, quantity, and quality, as well as bed and bank of the water in order to utilise it.

Droughty index (PDI): a ratio of temperature and amount of precipitation to characterise the degree of drought (non-droughty area where PDI is under 6,0C/100 mm; extraordinary droughty area where PDI is above 12C/100 mm).

Forest

Forest area: land area over 1500 m2 covered by forest trees, bushes and used for forest management.

Forests covered by trees: area covered by species of trees not included the clear cutting area, forestation area, shrubby.

Growing stock: gross wood volume of growing stock covered forest stands.

Emissions of air pollutants

Air pollution

Waste water discharge

Sewage: water containing more or less organic and inorganic pollutants originated from drinking, household, industrial, agricultural, institutional water utilisation, consumption, i.e. all water whose physico-chemical and biological characteristics are changed by utilisation.

Suitably treated waste water: waste water not contained such amounts of pollutants why penalty to be paid. Its quality after the treatment fit to relevant limit values.

Non-treated waste water: waste water not going through any treatment process, and discharging directly outlet to the reservoir. Mechanicalpretreatment do not count treatment.

Biological waste water treatment: process that employs aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms and result in decanted effluents and separated sludge containing microbial mass together with pollutants. Biological treatment processes are also used in combination and/or in conjunction with mechanical and advanced unit operations.

Advanced waste water treatment: process capable of reducing specific constituents in waste water or sludge not normally achieved by other treatment options. It focuses on the elimination of nitrogen and phosphorus using biological and/or chemical, and physical methods. Advanced treatment technology includes for example chemical coagulation, flocculation and precipitation, break-point chlorination, stripping, mixed media filtration, micro-screening, selective ion exchange, activated carbon adsorption, reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration, electro-flotation. Advanced treatment processes are also used in combination and/or in conjunction with mechanical and advanced unit operations.

Waste

Municipal waste: household waste and all other types of waste – generated first of all in institutions and enterprises – which have a similar composition and can thus be removed and disposed of together with that.

Municipal waste removed by public services covers only the quantity removed by public services, so it does not include e.g. the quantity of waste removed to order based on individual contracts.

Hazardous waste: according to the Act CLXXXV of 2012 the hazardous waste is such waste which, or whose any component or decomposed substance possess defined dangerous character. The amount of hazardous waste does not contain the amount of red mud generated, because, from 2004 red mud is not classified as hazardous waste, according to the EWC codes.

There is difference between the amount of generated and treated waste because the total amount of waste generated in the current year is not treated in the current year. Another reason of the difference is that during certain pre-treatment methods the actual amount of waste is decreased because of e.g. evaporation, gas production, etc. At the end, the amount of waste after treatment is smaller than the generated.

Nature conservation

National park: a major landscape having country specific characteristics and endowments not essetially disturbed, where joint presence of plant and animal species as well as geographical relief/terrain represent special importance for science, public education and social welfare/recreation.

Landscape protection region: a major area or landscape served for conservation and maintainance of the nature protected values and the favourable natural property.

Nature conservation reserves: area served for conservation and maintainance of the nature protected values, as well as the opened up caves and its superficial area.

Environmental protection expenditure

Environmental protection investments are all investment expenditures resulting from actions and activities which have as their prime objective the prevention, reduction and elimination of pollution and any other degradation of the environment.

End-of-pipe investments are additional technical installations that do not affect the production process itself, they operate independently of or are identifiable parts added to the production facilities, treat pollution that has been generated, prevent the emissions or spread of the pollutants or measure the level of pollution (monitoring).

Process-integrated investments are investments where a production process or installation is adapted or changed such that it generates fewer emissions or pollutants than in the absence of the technique. These are generally preventive measures. A process integrated technique can be implemeted by adapting an existing installation, the environmental investment is then the total cost of the adaption. It can also be implemented by installing a new production installation in which the design takes account of environmental demands, the environmental investment consist of the extra investment compared with the available cheaper alternative.
From 2003 a representative survey was carried out for the local authorities while the rest of the NACE industry L was covered by a full scope survey.
Data have been made full-scope by simple grossing up method. Non-response was dealt with in the course of grossing up from the year 2003. The standard error has been calculated in the traditional way.

Environmental taxes

Environmental taxes are those taxes whose tax base is a physical unit that has a proven negative impact on the environment.
 

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