7.2.12. Distribution of research and development expenditure, 2018*

(%)

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Countries Share of
business enterprises government institutes higher education
of total research and development expenditure
Austria 69.9 7.1 22.4
Belgium 70.5 9.5 19.4
Bulgaria 71.9 22.1 5.5
Cyprus 36.9 9.6 41.9
Czechia 61.9 16.4 21.5
Denmark 64.3 3.0 32.4
United Kingdom 69.1 6.1 22.5
Estonia 42.3 11.4 44.5
Finland 65.7 8.3 25.2
Francea 65.4 12.5 20.5
Greece 48.3 22.3 28.4
Netherlands 67.1 5.8 27.2
Croatia 48.0 19.9 32.0
Ireland 74.8a 4.3 20.9
Poland 66.1 1.9 31.7
Latvia 24.9 22.8 52.4
Lithuania 37.5 21.4 38.6
Luxembourg 55.8 23.8a 20.4a
Hungary 75.6 10.9 12.7
Malta 59.2 1.3 39.5
Germany 68.8a 13.5 17.7a
Italy 62.1 12.7 23.5
Portugal 50.8 5.7 42.0
Romania 59.3 30.6 9.8
Spain 54.3 17.7 27.7
Sweden 70.9 3.6 25.4
Slovakia 54.1 21.2 24.3
Slovenia 74.2 13.6 11.9
European Union–28 66.6 10.8 21.8
Euro area–19 66.1 12.2 21.0
Russia 55.6 34.4 9.7
*Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg).  aEstimated data.  Preliminary data 

© Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 2011