3.4.1. Main ratios of R&D (1990–)

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Year R&D units'
total R&D staff as a percentage of total labour forcea of which: researchers R&D capital expenditure as a percentage of national investments R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP
1990 0.81 0.39 1.27 1.60
1991 0.63 0.31 0.45 1.07
1992 0.57 0.29 0.60 1.05
1993 0.58 0.30 0.56 0.98
1994 0.59 0.32 0.56 0.89
1995 0.54 0.29 0.71 0.71b
1996 0.55 0.29 0.40 0.63
1997 0.57 0.31 0.48 0.70
1998 0.56 0.32 0.53 0.66
1999 0.56 0.33 0.52 0.67
2000 0.61 0.37 0.64 0.79
2001 0.59 0.38 0.75 0.91
2002 0.61 0.39 0.74 0.98
2003 0.59 0.38 0.76 0.92
2004 0.59 0.39 0.60 0.86
2005 0.60 0.41 0.72 0.92
2006 0.66c 0.45 0.90 0.98
2007 0.66 0.45 0.59 0.96
2008 0.71 0.48 0.62 0.98
2009 0.79 0.54 0.75 1.13
2010 0.84 0.57 0.79 1.14
2011 0.90 0.61 0.86 1.19
2012 0.93 0.62 1.33 1.26
2013 0.98 0.64 1.62 1.39
2014 0.91 0.64 1.15 1.35
2015 0.88 0.60 1.00 1.35
2016 0.82 0.59 0.92 1.19
2017 0.91 0.64 1.10 1.33
2018 1.02 0.70 1.02 1.53
aFull-time equivalents (FTE).  bCalculation of GDP is based on ESA 2010 methology.  cGrossing up of LFS data is based on the adjusted population number of 2011 census dating back to 2006.  Preliminary data  Revised data 

© Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 2011