Data of international tables refer to all the countries of the European Union in the case of annual data, as well as other countries of importance in a given topic. Tables including interim data refer to the members of the European Union, the EU average, the Euro-zone as well as to the United States of America and Japan, except for table 7.1., entitled Unemployment rate of population aged 15–64, which does not report data for the United States and Japan because of limits of comparability. Interim data on Hungary are published in line with the internationally harmonized methodology.
Among annual tables there is a long time-series from 1990, the other tables generally contain data from 2000.
Interim tables mainly include monthly data, except for the following tables containing quarterly data:
7.1. Unemployment rate of population aged 15–64
7.2. Volume index of gross domestic product
7.3. Volume index of final consumption expenditure of households
7.4. Volume index of gross fixed capital formation
7.10. Current account balance
The primary source of data is Eurostat in case of members of the European Union and OECD in case of extra-EU countries. Differing cases are indicated in the tables.
7.1.1. Ageing index
Number of elderly people (aged 65+) as a percentage of children (aged 0–14).
7.1.3. Live birth rate
Rate of live births to the mid-year population.
7.1.4. Death rate
Rate of deceased to the mid-year population.
7.1.5. Natural increase (decrease)
Difference between live births and deaths.
7.1.7. Infant mortality
The number of deceased infants (less than 1 year old) per thousand live-born infants.
7.1.6. Migration balance
Difference between the number of people immigrating to and emigrating from the given country.
7.1.8.; 7.1.9.; 7.1.10. Average life expectancy at birth
Expresses how long lifetime can be expected at birth at the mortality rates of the respective year.
Economically active population (available labour force)
The total number of persons aged 15–64 employed and unemployed according to the representative labour force survey.
In case of the United States data refer to the age-group 16–64.
Economically active population as a percentage of the total population aged 15–64 according to the representative labour force survey.
In case of the United States data refer to the age-group 16–64.
Number of employed persons
According to the representative labour force survey those persons aged 15–64 who worked one hour or more for pay as employee, private entrepreneur, member of co-operatives, partnerships, or unpaid family worker during the reference week, and employees who had a job from which they were temporarily absent or were conscripts. Number of employed persons does not include persons on child-care leave.
Data refer to employed persons aged 16-64 in case of the United States.
Employment rate: the ratio of employed persons to the population of the corresponding age-group.
Number of unemployed persons
Data are derived from the representative labour force survey and cover persons aged 15–64. Unemployed are those persons who did not work in the reference week and had no job from which they were temporarily absent; who were actively looking for work in four weeks before the survey; who would be ready for work within two weeks if a proper job was found, and those who have already found a job to start within 3 months.
Data refer to employed persons aged 16–64 in case of the United States.
Rate of unemployed persons aged 15–64 to the economically active population of the corresponding age.
Part-time employment rate:
of the EU countries, Norway and Switzerland is calculated as the number of people aged 15–64 employed part-time compared to the number of employed people aged 15–64.
In case of non-EU countries the part-time employment rate is calculated as the number of people aged 15–64 employed part-time compared to the total number of employed people.
Data contain the total public and private health expenditure.
The number of physicians: includes all practising physicians in health services and provide services directly to patients. The data excludes physicians working abroad, retired, do not practising or unemployed, or working outside health services but includes the foreign physicians licensed to practice and actively practising in the country.
The number of professionally active physicians: includes practising physicians and other physicians for whom their medical education is a prerequisite for the execution of the job.
The number of physicians licensed to practice: includes practising and other (non-practising) physicians who are registered and entitled to practice as health care professionals.
The data of Finland, France, the Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey and Canada refer to professionally active physicians. The data of Greece and Portugal refer to physicians who are licensed to practice. The data of Belgium and Spain contain stomatologists.
Data refer to hospital beds in operation, i.e. beds in actual use prepared for patients. Data do not include the number of hospital beds being out of use for longer than 6 months.
The indicator shows the death rate of a population adjusted to a standard age distribution. As most causes of death vary significantly with people's age and sex, the use of standardised death rates improves comparability over time and between countries, as they aim at measuring death rates independently of different age structures of populations. The standardised death rates used here are calculated on the basis of a standard European population (defined by the World Health Organization), per 100 000 inhabitants.
Data relating to students in tertiary education are published according to the classification ISCED-2011 (International Standard Classification of Education). Students in tertiary education belong to the categories ISCED 5–8
In compliance with international recommendations, data collections of research and development (R&D) activities cover all organisations (research institutes, business enterprises, universities, colleges, as well as their departments, university hospitals, laboratories and government institutions) where research and development activities are performed.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Methodology of national accounts is based on the European System of Accounts 2010 (ESA 2010) for EU member states and candidate countries. As for other the data are published according to the System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA 2008), except Russia, India, Japan, China and Egypt where the data are published according to the System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 1993) and Turkey where the data are published according to the European System of Accounts 1995 (ESA 95).
From 1st January 2005 Financial Intermediation Services Indirectly Measured (FISIM) are allocated between user sectors for EU member states.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is a rate for converting national deflators and currencies, thus eliminating the differences in the price level of different countries and enabling quantitative comparisons of different GDP components and price level comparisons as well.
Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) is an artificial currency unit used as a common conversion basis in the European Union for regional comparisons, to express the volume of aggregates of national economies by eliminating the differences in the price level of different countries.
Quarterly volume indices contain seasonally and calendar adjusted data.
Final consumption expenditure of households: included non-profit institutions serving households. Quarterly volume indices contain seasonally and calendar adjusted data.
Gross fixed capital formation: Quarterly volume indices contain seasonally and calendar adjusted data.
In 7.3.3. the data of the EU countries, Norway and Switzerland are calculated according to the NACE Rev. 2. (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community) those of non-EU countries are calculated according to the ISIC Rev.3. (International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities.) Names of industry-groups are shortened in the tables, covering as follows:the data are calculated according to the NACE Rev. 2.(Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community). Names of industry-groups are shortened in the tables, covering as follows:
Agriculture: Agriculture, forestry and fishing.
Industry: Mining and quarrying; Manufacturing; Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities.
Trade, transport, tourism, information: Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; Transportation and storage; Accommodation and food service activities; Information and communication.
Real estate, financial and other business services: Financial and insurance activities; Real estate activities; Professional, scientific and technical activities; Administrative and support service activities.
Other services: Public administration and defence, compulsory social security; Education; Human wealth and social work activities; Arts, entertainment and recreation; Other services.
7.3.7.–7.3.13.; 7.5.; 7.6.
According to recommendations of the United Nations the following recording systems are used in external trade statistics: Special trade (S) and General trade (G).
According to the "special" recording system external trade covers goods crossing the customs border of the country.
According to the "general" recording system external trade covers goods crossing the geographical border of the country.
Value data are converted to euros at current prices at the exchange rate in the given year.
Net primary energy imports: the difference between energy imports and exports.
Primary energy consumption: refers only to traded primary energy sources. Wind-power, geothermal and solar energy are excluded.
In European Union, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia the gross inland consumption is defined as primary production plus imports, recovered products and stock change, minus exports and fuel supply to maritime bunkers (for seagoing ships of all flags). It therefore reflects the necessary energy to satisfy inland consumption within the borders of national territory.
In other countries the notion of primary energy comprises commercially traded fuels, including modern renewable energy used to generate electricity.
The consolidated balance of total revenues and expenditures of general government sub-systems (central government, social security funds, extra-budgetary funds and local governments). Data are calculated according to ESA '2010 methodology.
The other countries report data according to IMF's GFS (Government Finance Statistics) methodology.
The government debt is the total gross debt of the general government outstanding at the end of the year, expressed in nominal value. Data are calculated according to ESA 2010 methodology.
The other countries reports data according to IMF's GFS (Government Finance Statistics) methodology.
The current account takes into account transactions in the real economy (transactions in goods and services), (interest and dividend) incomes from direct investments, compensation of employees and unrequited current transfers.
Data are disclosed according to the methodology described in the Balance of Payments Manual (6th edition, 2009) of the IMF.
The interest rate is the cost or price of borrowing, or the gain from lending, normally expressed as an annual percentage amount. The Maastricht criterion bond yields are used as a measure of compliance with the Maastricht convergence criterion for the long-term interest rate (central government bond yields on the secondary market, including taxes, with around ten years' residual maturity).
Data on foreign direct investments (FDI) comprise net annual investments of investors not resident in the given country, which may be contributions paid in kind or in cash, including loans provided by non-resident companies (to their subsidiaries)
Exchange rates are monthly and yearly averages. National currency per 1 USD.
Data on member states of the European Union, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey are harmonised indices of consumer price (HICP), while for the other countries changes of consumer prices are calculated according to national definitions.
Harmonised indices of consumer prices (HICP) are calculated for international comparisons across member states of the European Union. A national consumer price index and the harmonised index of consumer prices provide similar but not perfectly identical results, for which there are two methodological reasons. On the one hand the coverage of the two indicators is different (e.g. the harmonised index does not include games of chance), on the other hand the consumption of foreigners arriving in the country is either taken into consideration (in case of the harmonised index) or omitted, which leads to differences in weighting.
Cereals production, apples production, potatoes production, cattle, pigs, total meat production and cow milk production.
Data are published according to the methodology of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
Cereals: wheat, rye, barley, oat, maize, rice and other cereals.
Meat production: domestic slaughtering of livestock in slaughtered carcass weight (including also slaughter of imported live animals) and pig fat. Meat production excludes exports of live animals. Data cover the total of beef and veal, pig, poultry and other meat production.
Cow milk production: data usually relate to the production of whole fresh cow milk. Exceptions are Austria, the Czech Republic, Italy and Slovakia, where milk production includes the milk sucked by young animals.
In industrial statistics mining, manufacturing and energy industry (sections B, C and D) together are considered as total industry, the official name of which is industry excluding water and waste management.
Data on industrial production in countries of the European Union as well as in the case of Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey refer to sections B (mining and quarrying), C (manufacturing) and D (electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply) of NACE Rev. 2 (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Union). For other countries data are published according to ISIC Rev. 3 (the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities).
For EU member states, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey, yearly data are working-day adjusted figures and compared with the base year of 2015. Data of Russia, Switzerland, India, Israel, Japan. Republic of Korea, South Afrika, Brazil, United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia and New Zealand compared with the base year of 2010.
7.4.12., 7.4.14.: Data of Russia, Switzerland, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, South Afrika, Brazil, United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia and New Zealand are seasonally adjusted.
7.9.: For EU member states monthly data are working-day, United States and Japan seasonally adjusted figures.
Industrial producer prices cover sections B (mining), C (manufacturing), D (electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply) and E (of which water supply (E36), sewerage (E37), waste management (E38) and remediation activities (E39)), and are published for B-E36.
Indices refer to both domestic and export sales prices. Exceptions, Croatia, Portugal and Russia: domestic producer price index in industrial activities.
Australia: manufacturing sales price index.
Turkey, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, South Africa and Mexico: domestic producer price index in manufacturing.
India: price index of industrial sales by wholesale trade.
United States, Canada and Australia: total producer price index in manufacturing.
This is the proportion of individuals who used the Internet from any location at least once within the three months prior to the survey date. Access can be via a fixed or mobile network.
The quarterly data:
Portugal: domestic producer price index.
United States: total producer price index in manufacturing.
Japan: domestic producer price index in manufacturing