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INTERNATIONAL STATISTICS

Country coverage:

Data of international tables refer to all the countries of the European Union and United Kingdom in the case of annual data, as well as other countries of importance in a given topic. Tables including interim data refer to the members of the European Union, the EU27_2020 average, the Euro-zone as well as to the United States of America and Japan, except for table 20.2.3.1., entitled Unemployment rate of population aged 15–64, which does not report data for the United States and Japan because of limits of comparability. Interim data on Hungary are published in line with the internationally harmonized methodology.

Period:

The annual tables are generally contain data from 2000. Interim tables mainly include monthly data, except for the following tables containing quarterly data:
20.2.3.1. Unemployment rate of population aged 15–64 querterly
21.2.3.1. Volume index of gross domestic product quarterly
21.2.3.2. Volume index of final consumption expenditure of households quarterly
21.2.3.3. Volume index of gross fixed capital formation quarterly

Source:

The primary source of data is Eurostat in case of members of the European Union and OECD in case of extra-EU countries. Differing cases are indicated in the tables.

1. Prices

1.1.3.1..; 1.2.3.1.

Data on member states of the European Union, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey are harmonised indices of consumer price (HICP), while for the other countries changes of consumer prices are calculated according to national definitions.

Harmonised indices of consumer prices (HICP) are calculated for international comparisons across member states of the European Union. A national consumer price index and the harmonised index of consumer prices provide similar but not perfectly identical results, for which there are two methodological reasons. On the one hand the coverage of the two indicators is different (e.g. the harmonised index does not include games of chance), on the other hand the consumption of foreigners arriving in the country is either taken into consideration (in case of the harmonised index) or omitted, which leads to differences in weighting.

1.1.3.3.

Industrial producer prices cover sections B (mining), C (manufacturing), D (electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply) and E (of which water supply (E36), sewerage (E37), waste management (E38) and remediation activities (E39)), and are published for B–E36.

Indices refer to both domestic and export sales prices. Exceptions, Croatia,

Portugal and Russia: domestic producer price index in industrial activities.

Australia: manufacturing sales price index.

Turkey, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, South Africa and Mexico: domestic producer price index in manufacturing.

India: price index of industrial sales by wholesale trade.

United States, Canada and Australia: total producer price index in manufacturing.

1.2.3.2.

The mid-year industrial producer price index:

Portugal: domestic producer price index.

United States: total producer price index in manufacturing.

Japan: domestic producer price index in manufacturing

4. Health care, accident

4.1.3.1.

Data contain the total public and private health expenditure.

4.1.3.2.

Healthcare financing schemes' means types of financing arrangements through which people obtain health services, including both direct payments by households for services and goods and third-party financing arrangements.

Accuracy of SHA data is linked to and depends on the accuracy of the data received from the countries. Data sources are mainly administrative and register-based data, only a small percentage of the figures come from surveys or other means.


Hospital beds

4.1.3.3.

Data refer to hospital beds in operation, i.e. beds in actual use prepared for patients. Data do not include the number of hospital beds being out of use for longer than 6 months.

5. Living conditions, poverty

5.1.3.1–3.1.3.6.

At-risk-of-poverty rate: The share of persons with an equivalised disposable income below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, which is set at 60 % of the national median equivalised disposable income (after social transfers).

Severe material deprivation: Severe material deprivation refers to persons who experience at least four of the nine problems listed above.

People living in households with very low work intensity: People living in households with very low work intensity are people living in households where the members of working age (18-59 year-old) work less than 20% of their total work potential during the previous year. (value: 0–0.2)

People at risk of poverty or social exclusion: Share of people within the total population who are affected by one or more of the problems of at-risk-of-poverty, severe material deprivation or living in households with very low work intensity.

Poverty or social exclusion have been widely used terms in Europe since the Treaty of Nice. Fight against poverty is one of the most important challenges the European Union is facing. Basic objectives related to this issue were formulated by the Council of Europe in the Europe 2020 Strategy (in the context of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth) in 2010. According to this, EU Member States pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty and social exclusion by 2020.

Data on poverty and social exclusion are collected according to Regulation (EU) 2019/1700 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 October 2019 establishing a common framework for European statistics relating to persons and households, based on data at individual level collected from samples and Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2020/258, which regulate the EU-SILC survey from 2021on. On an annual basis an additional modul with a changing topic will be included in the EU-SILC survey. In Hungary, following this regulation data are collected by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office and transmitted to the Eurostat. Indicators published by HCSO are considered as preliminary until they are validated by Eurostat.

6. Energy

6.1.3.2.

Net primary energy imports: the difference between energy imports and exports.

6.1.3.3.

Primary energy consumption: refers only to traded primary energy sources. Wind-power, geothermal and solar energy are excluded.

In European Union, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia the gross inland consumption is defined as primary production plus imports, recovered products and stock change, minus exports and fuel supply to maritime bunkers (for seagoing ships of all flags). It therefore reflects the necessary energy to satisfy inland consumption within the borders of national territory.

In other countries the notion of primary energy comprises commercially traded fuels, including modern renewable energy used to generate electricity.

12. Information, communication

12.1.3.4.

This is the proportion of individuals who used the Internet from any location at least once within the three months prior to the survey date. Access can be via a fixed or mobile network.

13. Industry

13.1.3.1.–13.1.3.4.; 13.2.3.1.

In industrial statistics mining, manufacturing and energy industry (sections B, C and D) together are considered as total industry, the official name of which is industry excluding water and waste management.


Volume index of industrial production

13.1.3.1.–13.1.3.4.

Data on industrial production in countries of the European Union as well as in the case of Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey refer to sections B (mining and quarrying), C (manufacturing) and D (electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply) of NACE Rev. 2 (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Union). For other countries data are published according to ISIC Rev. 3 (the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities).

For EU member states, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey, yearly data are working-day adjusted figures and compared with the base year of 2015. Data of Russia, Switzerland, India, Israel, Japan. Republic of Korea, South Afrika, Brazil, United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia and New Zealand compared with the base year of 2010.

13.1.3.1.;13.1.3.3.

Data of Russia, Switzerland, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, South Afrika, Brazil, United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia and New Zealand are seasonally adjusted.

13.2.3.1.

For EU member states monthly data are working-day, United States and Japan seasonally adjusted figures.

17. External Trade, Balance of Payments

17.1.3.1.–17.1.3.7.; 17.2.3.1.;17.2.3.2.

According to recommendations of the United Nations the following recording systems are used in external trade statistics: Special trade (S) and General trade (G).

According to the "special" recording system external trade covers goods crossing the customs border of the country.

According to the "general" recording system external trade covers goods crossing the geographical border of the country.

17.1.3.1.;17.1.3.2.

Value data are converted to euros at current prices at the exchange rate in the given year.

19. Agriculture

19.1.3.1.–19.1.3.11.

Cereals production, apples production, potatoes production, cattle, pigs, total meat production and cow milk production.

Data are published according to the methodology of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

19.1.3.2.

Cereals: wheat, rye, barley, oat, maize, rice and other cereals.

19.1.3.10.

Meat production: domestic slaughtering of livestock in slaughtered carcass weight (including also slaughter of imported live animals) and pig fat. Meat production excludes exports of live animals. Data cover the total of beef and veal, pig, poultry and other meat production.

19.1.3.11.

Cow milk production: data usually relate to the production of whole fresh cow milk. Exceptions are Austria, the Czech Republic, Italy and Slovakia, where milk production includes the milk sucked by young animals.

20. Labour market

20.1.3.1.

Economically active population (available labour force)

The total number of persons aged 15–64 employed and unemployed according to the representative labour force survey.

In case of the United States data refer to the age-group 16–64.

Activity rate

Economically active population as a percentage of the total population aged 15–64 according to the representative labour force survey.

In case of the United States data refer to the age-group 16–64.

Employed

20.1.3.2.

Number of employed persons

According to the representative labour force survey those persons aged 15–64 who worked one hour or more for pay as employee, private entrepreneur, member of co-operatives, partnerships, or unpaid family worker during the reference week, and employees who had a job from which they were temporarily absent or were conscripts. Number of employed persons does not include persons on child-care leave.

Data refer to employed persons aged 16–64 in case of the United States.

Employment rate: the ratio of employed persons to the population of the corresponding age-group.

Unemployment

20.1.3.3.

Number of unemployed persons

Data are derived from the representative labour force survey and cover persons aged 15–64. Unemployed are those persons who did not work in the reference week and had no job from which they were temporarily absent; who were actively looking for work in four weeks before the survey; who would be ready for work within two weeks if a proper job was found, and those who have already found a job to start within 3 months.

Data refer to employed persons aged 16–64 in case of the United States.

20.1.3.4.

Part-time employment rate: of the EU countries, Norway and Switzerland is calculated as the number of people aged 15–64 employed part-time compared to the number of employed people aged 15–64.

In case of non-EU countries the part-time employment rate is calculated as the number of people aged 15-64 employed part-time compared to the total number of employed people.

20.2.3.1.

Unemployment rate

Rate of unemployed persons aged 15–64 to the economically active population of the corresponding age.

21. National accounts, GDP

21.1.3.1.–23.1.3.6.; 21.2.3.1–21.2.3.3.

Methodology of national accounts is based on the European System of Accounts 2010 (ESA 2010) for EU member states and candidate countries. As for other the data are published according to the System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA 2008), except Russia, India, Japan, China and Egypt where the data are published according to the System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA 1993) and Turkey where the data are published according to the European System of Accounts 1995 (ESA 95).

From 1st January 2005 Financial Intermediation Services Indirectly Measured (FISIM) are allocated between user sectors for EU member states.

21.1.3.2.

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)is a rate for converting national deflators and currencies, thus eliminating the differences in the price level of different countries and enabling quantitative comparisons of different GDP components and price level comparisons as well.

Purchasing Power Standard (PPS) is an artificial currency unit used as a common conversion basis in the European Union for regional comparisons, to express the volume of aggregates of national economies by eliminating the differences in the price level of different countries.

Quarterly volume indices contain seasonally and calendar adjusted data.

21.1.3.5.; 21.2.3.2.

Final consumption expenditure of households: included non-profit institutions serving households. Quarterly volume indices contain seasonally and calendar adjusted data.

21.1.3.6.;21.2.3.3.

Gross fixed capital formation: Quarterly volume indices contain seasonally and calendar adjusted data.

21.1.3.3.

In 21.1.3.3.the data of the EU countries, Norway and Switzerland are calculated according to the NACE Rev. 2. (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community) those of non-EU countries are calculated according to the ISIC Rev.3. (International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities.) Names of industry-groups are shortened in the tables, covering as follows:the data are calculated according to the NACE Rev. 2.(Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community). Names of industry-groups are shortened in the tables, covering as follows:

Agriculture: Agriculture, forestry and fishing.

Industry: Mining and quarrying; Manufacturing; Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities.

Construction.

Trade, transport, tourism, information: Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles; Transportation and storage; Accommodation and food service activities; Information and communication.

Real estate, financial and other business services: Financial and insurance activities; Real estate activities; Professional, scientific and technical activities; Administrative and support service activities.

Other services: Public administration and defence, compulsory social security; Education; Human wealth and social work activities; Arts, entertainment and recreation; Other services.

22. Population and people's movement

22.1.3.4.

Live birth rate: Rate of live births to the mid-year population.

22.1.3.5.

Death rate: Rate of deceased to the mid-year population.

22.1.3.6.

Natural increase (decrease): Difference between live births and deaths.

22.1.3.7.

Infant mortality: The number of deceased infants (less than 1 year old) per thousand live-born infants.

22.1.3.12.

Migration balance: Difference between the number of people immigrating to and emigrating from the given country.

22.1.3.9;22.1.3.10.;22.1.3.11.

Average life expectancy at birth: Expresses how long lifetime can be expected at birth at the mortality rates of the respective year.

23. Education

23.1.3.1.

Data relating to students in tertiary education are published according to the classification ISCED-2011 (International Standard Classification of Education). Students in tertiary education belong to the categories ISCED 5–8


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