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1. POPULATION, VITAL STATISTICS

Population

Till 1990 the population number is the data of the full-scope population census, the population numbers 1991–2011 are data calculated backwards and forward, respectively, on basis of the population census taken on 1 February 2001, using the data of vital statistics (live births, deaths) as well as of internal and international migration. From 2012 all population data calculated forward on the basis of 1st October 2011 census.
Up to 1970 population data related to present population, and afterwards – in harmony with international recommendations – taking into account the economic suction or repulsive effect of regional units – it relates to resident population.

Present population: the number of persons staying in the given administrative district at the reference time. The country's present population does not include Hungarian citizens living (staying) abroad, but it covers foreign civil persons staying in the country, with the exception of the members of the diplomatic corps.

Resident population: the total number of persons who have registered permanent residence in the enumeration district, but do not have registered temporary residence elsewhere, as well as of those persons who have registered temporary residence there.

Settlement type: the grouping of settlements by administrative division, which – if not otherwise indicated – refer to the prevailing time.

Population density: the number of inhabitants per 1 km2 of respective area.

Average age: the weighted arithmetic men age of living population at a point of time.

Dependency ratio: the 14 year-old and younger child population and 65 year-old and older population as a percentage of population aged 15–64 years.

Ageing index: the 65 year-old and older population as a percentage of the 14 year-old and younger child population.

Source of data: the comprehensive population census carried out by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office every ten years, the statistics of vital events (marriages, registered partnerships, divorces, live births, deaths), the Electronic Register System, in case of data of internal migration the registration system of addresses of the Ministry of Interior, Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management and in case of data of international migration on foreigners and Hungarian citizens the various registrations of the Ministry of Interior, Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management, National Directorate-General for Aliens Policing and National Institute of Health Insurance Fund Management.

Vital events

Data on vital events refer to the vital events occurred in Hungary.

Marriage: an act contracted before the registrar acting in his official capacity in the presence of two witnesses.

Source of data: the data collection of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office on the 'Marriage Record' carried out on basis of 30 of the 2016 Act No. CLV., and, in accordance with its 28, data transmission from the Electronic Register System.

Divorce: a marriage dissolved or annulled by a court's decision entered into legal force. A court's decision dissolving or annulling the marriage enters into legal force if no further legal remedy can be raised against it.

Source of data: the data collection of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office on the 'Divorce Record' carried out on basis of 30 of the 2016 Act No. CLV.

Live birth: (according to UN recommendations) a foetus is live-born if it gives any sign of life after birth, regardless of the length of pregnancy and the length of life after birth. Total fertility rate: it expresses to how many children a female would give birth during her life at the age specific birth rate of the given year. Crude (gross) reproduction rate: it shows to how many daughters a female would give birth during her life at the age specific birth rate of the given year. Net reproduction rate: it indicates how many daughters per female would reach the childbearing age at the mortality rate of the given year. If the value of the indicator is 1, this shows the stagnation of the population, a value over 1 means an increase and a value under 1 a decrease.

Source of data: the data collection of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office on the 'Live Birth Record' carried out on basis of 30 of the 2016 Act No. CLV., and, in accordance with its 28, data transmission from the Electronic Register System.

Foetal loss: foetal deaths and induced abortions together.

Foetal death: death of the foetus before birth (prior to complete expulsion or extraction from the mother), irrespective of the gestation period.

Source of data: the data collection of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office on the 'Foetal death certificate' carried out on basis of 30 of the 2016 Act No. CLV., and the data transmission on 'Certificate on the Examination of the Perinatal Deceased', 'Notice on Perinatal Death (pathological histology)' according to 42 of the Goverment Regulation 351/2013 (X.4).

Induced abortion: interruption of pregnancy through intentional – surgical – intervention.

Source of data: the questionnaire No. 1165 HCSO data collection called 'Record B for the statistical data supply on the induced abortion.

Death: (according to UN recommendations) the definitive passing away of all signs of life of a person after being live-born; the complete discontinuance of life-functions, without the capacity of revival. Cause of death: all those diseases, morbid conditions or injuries which either resulted in or contributed to death.
Causes of death have been classified according to the International Classification of Diseases. The Xth Revision of the ICD was introduced on 1 January 1996. Retrospective data have been recalculated according to Xth Rev. of the ICD, except for long time series in Table 1.1. as well as the circumstance of an accident or violence which caused a fatal injury. The method of causes-of-death data processing was changed in 2005. Manual coding has been replaced by automated processing in which the coding of diagnose texts and selection of the underlying cause are carried out by a software. Causes of death have been classified according to the International Classification of Diseases. The Xth Revision of the ICD was introduced on 1 January 1996. Retrospective data have been recalculated according to Xth Rev. of the ICD, except for long time series in Table 1.1. Infant death: death after live birth and before completing the age of one year. Still-born children and those deceased on the anniversary of the birth are not counted to infant death. Average life expectancy: expresses how long lifetime can be expected by the population of different ages at the mortality rates of the respective year.

Source of data: the data collection of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office on the 'Death Record' carried out on basis of 30 of the 2016 Act No. CLV., in accordance with its 28, data transmission from the Electronic Register System and the data transmission on 'Certificate on the Examination of the Deceased', 'Notice Regarding Modification of the Death Certificate', 'Certificate on the Examination of the Perinatal Deceased', 'Notice on Perinatal Death (pathological histology)' according to 42 of the Goverment Regulation 351/2013 (X.4).

Natural increase (decrease): the difference between live births and deaths.

Actual increase (decrease): the sum of natural increase/decrease and of the migration (internal and international) difference (+,–).

Migration

Internal migration

Data sources: the basis of the accounting of internal migration statistics is the registration system of home addresses on which the Ministry of the Interior Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management provides input data sets. The register contains information on the permanent and the temporary places of residence.

Permanent internal migration: changing the permanent place of residence across different settlements.

Temporary internal migration: establishing a temporary place of residence in another settlement or changing temporary place of residence across settlements while maintaining the permanent place of residence.

Temporary remigration: the change in the place of residence when the migrant leaving the place of stay returns to the place of residence.

Temporary internal return migration: leaving the temporary place of residence to return to the permanent place of residence.

Balance of permanent internal migration: the difference between the numbers of persons who establish a permanent place of residence in a given territorial unit and of those who change their permanent place of residence from the same to another territorial unit.

Balance of temporary internal migration: the difference between the total of temporary internal in- and return migration to a given territorial unit, and the sum of the total of temporary internal out- and return migration from the same territorial unit.

Balance of total internal migration: the sum of the temporary and permanent internal migration balances in a given territorial unit.

International migration

Data sources: registers of immigration permits, registers of residence- and settlement permits of third country nationals, registers of residence and settlement documents of persons with the right of free movement and the asylum register of the National-Directorate General for Aliens Policing, the Register of personal data and addresses of the Ministry of the Interior Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management and the Register of the National Health Insurance Fund.

Foreign citizen immigrating to Hungary: a foreign citizen who entered Hungary in the given year and obtained a residence permit in accordance with legal regulations in effect.

Foreign citizen emigrating from Hungary: a foreign citizen with residence or settlement permit who left Hungary in a given year without the intent to return, or whose permit is expired and did not apply for renewal or whose permit was invalidated by the authorities

Foreign citizen residing in Hungary: a foreign citizen with residence or settlement permit who stayed in Hungary on the 1st January of a given year. A significant decline observed between 2011 and 2012 in the number of foreign citizens residing in Hungary is due to data adjustment based on Population Census 2011. Since the 1st January, 2012, data on foreign citizens residing in Hungary includes recognized refugees and persons taken under subsidiary protection. Since reference year 2018, the data on recognized refugees and persons under subsidiary protection is partially based on statistical estimations.

Asylum seeker: foreign citizen or stateless person, who requested for international protection from Hungary. The applicant is entitled to reside in Hungary and to receive appropriate care and support in accordance with EU rules during the examination of an application. The applicant, at the end of the procedure, may obtain a refugee status, subsidiary protection or tolerated stay status.

Refugee: refugee status may be granted to a person whose life and liberty are threatened in his/her country of origin on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion, or whose fear of being subject to persecution is well founded, and who currently resides in the territory of Hungary and submits an application for asylum. Refugee status remains in force until the refugee obtains Hungarian citizenship or the refugee status is withdrawn. The refugee authority is ex officio required to review each refugee status every three years.

Subsidiary protection: A person may be admitted for subsidiary protection if he/she does not qualify as a refugee but in respect of whom there are reasons to believe that the person concerned, if returned to his/her country of origin would face a real risk of suffering serious harm, and is unable, or, owing to such risk, unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country. The refugee authority is ex officio required to review each subsidiary protection status every three years.

Tolerated stay (non-refoulement principle): shall mean any person who is provided temporary shelter and may not be returned to the country of his/her citizenship, or in the case of a stateless person to the country of domicile, for fear of facing the threat of the death penalty, torture or any other form of inhumane or humiliating treatment, and there is no safe third country offering refugee, and who is not entitled to asylum nor to any subsidiary form of protection or temporary protection.

Data of refugees, subsidiary protection and tolerated stay status refer to numbers according to final decisions on applications.

Person naturalized in Hungary: someone who became a Hungarian citizen by naturalization (born as a foreign citizen) or by renaturalization (his/her former Hungarian citizenship was abolished). Legislation on the naturalization of foreign citizens in Hungary was modified by the Act XLIV. of 2010. The Act introduced simplified naturalization procedures from the 1st January 2011, and made possible to obtain citizenship without a residence in Hungary for the foreign citizens with Hungarian ancestors.

Hungarian citizen immigrating to Hungary: a Hungarian citizen born abroad entering Hungary in a given year or who had lived abroad and returned to Hungary in order to settle down, as well as Hungarian citizens who returned from temporary residence abroad.

Hungarian citizen emigrating from Hungary: a Hungarian citizen leaving Hungary with the intention of settling down or residing temporarily abroad.

Balance of international migration: the statistically adjusted difference between the number of immigrants to and emigrants from Hungary.

 

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