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1. POPULATION, VITAL STATISTICS

Population

Data on vital events refer to the vital events occurred in Hungary.

Till 1990 the population number is the data of the full-scope population census, the population numbers 1991-2011 are data calculated backwards and forward, respectively, on basis of the population census taken on 1 February 2001, using the data of vital statistics (live births, deaths) as well as of internal and international migration. From 2012 all population data calculated forward on the basis of 1st October 2011 census.
Up to 1970 population data related to present population, and afterwards – in harmony with international recommendations – taking into account the economic suction or repulsive effect of regional units – it relates to resident population.

Present population: the number of persons staying in the given administrative district at the reference time. The country's present population does not include Hungarian citizens living (staying) abroad, but it covers foreign civil persons staying in the country, with the exception of the members of the diplomatic corps.

Resident population: the total number of persons who have registered permanent residence in the enumeration district, but do not have registered temporary residence elsewhere, as well as of those persons who have registered temporary residence there.

Settlement type: the grouping of settlements by administrative division, which – if not otherwise indicated – refer to the prevailing time.

Population density: the number of inhabitants per 1 km2 of respective area.

Average age: the weighted arithmetic men age of living population at a point of time.

Dependency ratio: the 14 year-old and younger child population and 65 year-old and older population as a percentage of population aged 15–64 years.

Ageing index: the 65 year-old and older population as a percentage of the 14 year-old and younger child population.

Vital events

Marriage: an act contracted before the registrar acting in his official capacity in the presence of two witnesses.

Divorce: a marriage dissolved or annulled by a court's decision entered into legal force. A court's decision dissolving or annulling the marriage enters into legal force if no further legal remedy can be raised against it.

Live birth: (according to UN recommendations) a foetus is live-born if it gives any sign of life after birth, regardless of the length of pregnancy and the length of life after birth. Total fertility rate: it expresses to how many children a female would give birth during her life at the age specific birth rate of the given year. Crude (gross) reproduction rate: it shows to how many daughters a female would give birth during her life at the age specific birth rate of the given year. Net reproduction rate: it indicates how many daughters per female would reach the childbearing age at the mortality rate of the given year. If the value of the indicator is 1, this shows the stagnation of the population, a value over 1 means an increase and a value under 1 a decrease.

Foetal loss: foetal deaths and induced abortions together.

Foetal death: death of the foetus before birth (prior to complete expulsion or extraction from the mother), irrespective of the gestation period.

Induced abortion: interruption of pregnancy through intentional – surgical – intervention.

Death: (according to UN recommendations) the definitive passing away of all signs of life of a person after being live-born; the complete discontinuance of life-functions, without the capacity of revival. Cause of death: all those diseases, morbid conditions or injuries which either resulted in or contributed to death as well as the circumstance of an accident or violence which caused a fatal injury. The method of causes-of-death data processing was changed in 2005. Manual coding has been replaced by automated processing in which the coding of diagnose texts and selection of the underlying cause are carried out by a software.
Causes of death have been classified according to the International Classification of Diseases. The Xth Revision of the ICD was introduced on 1 January 1996. Retrospective data have been recalculated according to Xth Rev. of the ICD, except for long time series in Table 1.1. Infant death: death after live birth and before completing the age of one year. Still-born children and those deceased on the anniversary of the birth are not counted to infant death. Average life expectancy: expresses how long lifetime can be expected by the population of different ages at the mortality rates of the respective year.

Natural increase (decrease): the difference between live births and deaths.

Actual increase (decrease): the sum of natural increase/decrease and of the migration (internal and international) difference (+,–).

Migration

Internal migration

Permanent migration: the change in the place of residence when the migrant leaving his/her place of residence indicates a dwelling in another settlement as another place of residence.

Temporary migration: the change in the place of dwelling crossing municipal boundaries when the migrant maintaining the place of residence changes a dwelling and indicates a new dwelling as a place of stay as well when he moves from one place of stay to another place of stay.

Temporary remigration: the change in the place of residence when the migrant leaving the place of stay returns to the place of residence.

Difference in permanent migration: the difference between the number of persons registered with a permanent character to an administrative unit and of those who were registered with a permanent character to another administrative unit from there.

Difference in temporary migration: the difference between the total number of persons registered with a temporary character to a respective administrative unit as well as of those registered temporarily elsewhere but returning to the respective administrative unit as their permanent residence and the total number of those who are registered temporarily to another administrative unit from the respective unit as well as of those being in another administrative unit and returning to their permanent place of residence.

Difference in internal migration: the difference between the number of persons registered with a permanent or temporary character and temporary remigrants to the given administrative unit and the number of persons registered with a permanent or temporary character and temporary remigrants to an another administrative unit from the given administrative unit.

Source of data: the basis of the accounting of internal migration statistics is the registration system of home addresses on which the Ministry of the Interior Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management, (the former Central Office for Administrative and Electronic Public Services) supplies data sets for processing.

International migration

Foreign citizen immigrating to Hungary: a foreign citizen who entered Hungary in the given year and obtained a residence document according to legal regulations in effect. In the registration the time of arriving in Hungary is originally unknown in numerous cases. In these cases the time of entry was estimated by considering the first time of registration.

Foreign citizen emigrating from Hungary: a foreign citizizen having a residence or a settlement document and left Hungary in the given year without the intent to return, or whose permission's validity is expired and did not apply for a new one or whose permission was invalidated by authority due to withdrawal.

Foreign citizen residing in Hungary: a foreign citizen having a residence or a settlement document who has been residing in Hungary on 1 January of the given year. There is a fall of more than fourty thousand between the data of 2000 and 2001, which has only administrative reasons. Since 1 January 2001 people with invalid residence document do not belong to the foreign citizens residing in the country. A significant decline occured in the number of foreign citizens residing in Hungary between 2011 and 2012, which is due to the adjustment to the October 2011 population census data. Number of foreign population based upon registration includes data of refugees as well.

Asylum seeker: foreign citizen or stateless person, who requested for international protection from Hungary. The applicant is entitled to reside in Hungary during examination of an application. In the meantime the applicant is entitled to receive appropriate care and support in accordance with EU rules. The applicant may obtain refugee, subsidiary protection or tolerated stay status.

Refugee: a foreign citizen or a stateless person who, owing to persecution or well-founded fear of persecution on the grounds of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, has left the country of his/her citizenship, or his/her habitual residence in the case of a stateless person, and is staying in the territory of Hungary, and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail him/herself of the protection of country of origin; provided that the person concerned has been recognized by the refugee authority as a refugee, at the request of the person concerned.

Subsidiary protection: a foreign citizen or a stateless person who does not fulfill the requirements of refugee status, but cannot return to his/her country of origin due to a real risk of suffering serious offense and is unable or owing to fear that risk unwilling to claim the protection of his/her country of origin, thus receives subsidiary protection.

Tolerated stay: shall mean any person who is provided temporary shelter and may not be returned to the country of his/her nationality, or in the case of a stateless person to the country of domicile, for fear of facing the threat of the death penalty, torture or any other form of inhumane or humiliating treatment, and there is no safe third country offering refugee, and who is not entitled to asylum or treatment as a stateless person, nor to any subsidiary form of protection or temporary protection.

Data of refugees, subsidiary protection and tolareted stay status refer to numbers according to final decisions on applications.

Hungarian citizen emigrating from Hungary: a Hungarian citizen leaving Hungary with the intention of settling down or residing temporarily abroad.

Balance of international migration: the difference between the number of immigrants to Hungary and emigrants from Hungary with statistical adjustment.

Source of data: registers of immigration permits, registers of residence- and settlement permits of third country nationals, registers of residence and settlement documents of persons with the right of free movement and residence from the Aliens Policing department and the reports of the Refugee affairs department of the Immigration and Asylum Office (the former Office of Immigration and Nationality), the Register of personal data and addresses of the Ministry of the Interior Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management, (the former Central Office for Administrative and Electronic Public Services), and the Register of the National Health Insurance Fund.

Source of methodology: Demographic Yearbook, 2016 (HCSO, Budapest, 2017).

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