7.2.10. Research and development expenditure as % of GDP (2000–)*(2/2)

(%)

< >
Countries 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Austria 2.7a 2.7 2.9a 3.0 3.1a 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2
Belgium 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8
Bulgaria 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.8
Cyprus 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
Czechia 1.3 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.9
Denmark 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0
United Kingdom 1.7a 1.7 1.6a 1.6 1.6a 1.7 1.7a 1.7 1.7
Estonia 1.6 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.4
Finland 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.8
France 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2a 2.2a
Greece 0.6a 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2
Netherlands 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.2
Croatia 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0
Ireland 1.6a 1.6a 1.6a 1.6a 1.5a 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Poland 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2
Latvia 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6
Lithuania 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.9
Luxembourg 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2
Hungary 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.2 1.3 1.5
Malta 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6
Germany 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.1a
Italy 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3a 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4
Portugal 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4
Romania 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Spain 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Sweden 3.2a 3.2 3.2a 3.3a 3.1a 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3
Slovakia 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.2 0.8 0.9 0.8
Slovenia 2.1 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.0
European Union–28 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1
Euro area–19 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2
Norway 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1
Russia 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 .. .. ..
Switzerland .. .. 3.2 .. .. 3.4 .. 3.3 ..
Serbia 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 ..
Turkey 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 ..
India 0.8a 0.8a .. .. .. 0.6 .. .. ..
Israel 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.6 ..
Japan 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2 ..
China 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 ..
Republic of Korea 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.6 ..
South Africa 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 .. ..
Brazil 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 .. ..
United States 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 ..
Canada 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 ..
Mexico 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 .. ..
Australia 2.4 2.2 .. 2.2 .. 1.9 .. .. ..
*Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg); UNESCO database.  aEstimated data.  Preliminary data  Revised data 

© Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 2011