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22. POPULATION, VITAL EVENTS

Population

Till 1990 the population number is the data of the full-scope population census, the population numbers 1991–2011 are data calculated backwards and forward, respectively, on basis of the population census taken on 1 February 2001, using the data of vital statistics (live births, deaths) as well as of internal and international migration. From 2012 all population data calculated forward on the basis of 1st October 2011 census.Up to 1970 population data related to present population, and afterwards – in harmony with international recommendations – taking into account the economic suction or repulsive effect of regional units – it relates to resident population.

Up to 1970 population data related to present population, and afterwards – in harmony with international recommendations – taking into account the economic suction or repulsive effect of regional units – it relates to resident population.

Present population: the number of persons staying in the given administrative district at the reference time. The country's present population does not include Hungarian citizens living (staying) abroad, but it covers foreign civil persons staying in the country, with the exception of the members of the diplomatic corps.

Resident population: the total number of persons who have registered permanent residence in the enumeration district, but do not have registered temporary residence elsewhere, as well as of those persons who have registered temporary residence there.

Settlement type: the grouping of settlements by administrative division, which – if not otherwise indicated – refer to the prevailing time.

Population density: the number of inhabitants per 1 km2 of respective area.

Average age: the weighted arithmetic men age of living population at a point of time.

Youth dependency ratio: the 14-year-old and younger child population as a percentage of 15–64-year-old population.

Old-age dependency ratio: the 65 year-old and older population as a percentage of 15–64-year-old population.

Dependency ratio: the 14 year-old and younger child population and 65 year-old and older population as a percentage of population aged 15–64 years.

Ageing index: the 65 year-old and older population as a percentage of the 14 year-old and younger child population.

Source of data: the comprehensive population census carried out by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office every ten years the statistics of vital events (marriages, registered partnerships, divorces, live births, deaths), in case of data of internal migration the registration system of addresses of the Ministry of Interior, Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management and in case of data of international migration on foreigners and Hungarian citizens the various registrations of the Ministry of Interior, Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management, National Directorate-General for Aliens Policing and National Institute of Health Insurance Fund Management.

Vital events

Data on vital events refer to the vital events occurred in Hungary.

Live birth: (according to UN recommendations) a foetus is live-born if it gives any sign of life after birth, regardless of the length of pregnancy and the length of life after birth.

Crude (gross) reproduction rate: it shows to how many daughters a female would give birth during her life at the age specific birth rate of the given year.

Net reproduction rate: it indicates how many daughters per female would reach the childbearing age at the mortality rate of the given year. If the value of the indicator is 1, this shows the stagnation of the population, a value over 1 means an increase and a value under 1 a decrease.

Total fertility rate: it expresses to how many children a female would give birth during her life at the age specific birth rate of the given year.

Mean age of child-bearing females: the mean age is indicated with a weighted arithmetical mean calculated on the basis of the age-specific live birth data of the females giving birth to children in the given calendar period. At the calculation we add 0.5 year to the completed years of age of child-bearing females, supposing an even distribution of child-births in the given year.

Death: (according to UN recommendations) the definitive passing away of all signs of life of a person after being live-born; the complete discontinuance of life-functions, without the capacity of revival.

Cause of death: all those diseases, morbid conditions or injuries which either resulted in or contributed to death as well as the circumstance of an accident or violence which caused a fatal injury. The method of causes-of-death data processing was changed in 2005. Manual coding has been replaced by automated processing in which the coding of diagnose texts and selection of the underlying cause are carried out by a software.
The classification of causes of death and the identification of the underlying cause of death selected for statistical disclosure are made according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the WHO international regulatory framework. From 1 January 1996, the 10th Revision of ICD is in force. Retrospective data were recalculated according to the 10th Rev. of ICD, except for in Table 22.1.1.9. To classify the new coronavirus infection (Covid-19),– identified in 2020,– by cause of death, WHO selected ICD-10 codes U07.1–U10.9.

Infant death: death after live birth and before the completed age of one year. Still-born infants and those deceased on the anniversary of the birth are not counted among infant deaths.

Average life expectancy: expresses how many further years of lifetime can be expected by people of various ages at the mortality rate of the given year.

Crude death rate: umber of deaths per thousand population calculated for mid-year population.

Sex- and age-specific death rate: the ratio of deaths by sex and age calculated to thousand mid-year population of the corresponding sex and age.

Mean age of deceased persons: a weighted arithmetic mean calculated on the basis of deaths by age in the given calendar period.

Natural increase (decrease): the difference between live births and deaths.

Actual increase (decrease): the sum of natural increase/decrease and of the migration (internal and international) difference (+,–).

Foetal loss: foetal deaths and induced abortions together.

Foetal death: death of the foetus before birth (prior to complete expulsion or extraction from the mother), irrespective of the gestation period.

Early and medium term foetal death (spontaneous miscarriage, spontaneous abortion): if after the separation from the mother's body the foetus did not show any sign of life and if from the conception no longer than 24 (till 1997 27) complete weeks passed or if the age of the foetus cannot be stated, the weight of the foetus is 500 g or less or the length of the foetus is 30 cm or less.

Late foetal death (stillbirth): if after the separation from the mother's body the foetus did not show any sign of life and from the conception longer than 24 (till 1997 27) complete weeks passed or if the age of the foetus cannot be stated, the weight of the foetus is 500 g or more or the length of the foetus is 30 cm or more, while in case of twin birth if at least one of the foetus' was born alive.

Induced abortion: interruption of pregnancy through intentional – surgical – intervention.

Marriage: an act contracted before the registrar acting in his official capacity in the presence of two witnesses.

Crude marriage rate: number of marriages per thousand population calculated for mid-year population.

Remarrying person: the one whose marital status was widowed, divorced, widowed registered partner or divorced registered partner before the contract of marriage.

Mean age at (first) marriage: a weighted arithmetic mean calculated on the basis of (first) marriages by the age in the given calendar period. It’s calculated by adding 0.5 year to the completed age of the people (marrying for the first time), presuming an even distribution of marriages in the given year.

Balance of marriages: the difference between the number of marriages and of the number of marriages ceased through the death of a married party or by a divorce.

Registered partnership: from 1 July 2009 according to Act XXIX of 2009 on registered partnership, a registered partnership is contracted between two, over 18-year-old, same-sex persons before the registrar acting officially in the presence of two witnesses.

Mean age at registered partnership: a weighted arithmetic mean calculated on the basis of registered partnerships by age in the given calendar period. It's calculated by adding 0.5 year to the completed age of the partners, presuming an even distribution of registered partnerships in the given year.

Divorce: a marriage dissolved or annulled by a court's decision entered into legal force. A court's decision dissolving or annulling the marriage enters into legal force if no further legal remedy can be raised against it.

Crude divorce rate: number of divorces per thousand population calculated for mid-year population.

Mean age at divorce: a weighted arithmetic mean calculated from the age-specific divorces of the divorced people in the given calendar period. At the calculation we add 0.5 year to the completed age of divorcees, presuming an even distribution of divorces in the given year.

Average duration of marriage at divorce: a weighted arithmetic mean of the average periods from contracting a marriage to divorce, the marriage-duration-specific divorce rates were taken as weights.

Balance of marriages: the difference between the number of marriages and of the number of marriages ceased through the death of a married party or by a divorce.

Grouping of the regional data for marriage and divorce data is based on the actual residence of the wife, for live births data the actual residence of the mother and for deaths data the actual residence of the deceased. For those who have only a registered place of residence (permanent address), the actual place of residence is the municipality where they have or had their last place of residence. In the case of those who, in addition to their place of residence (permanent address), also have a place of stay (temporary address), their actual place of residence is their place of stay.
The source of the preliminary live birth, death and marriage data is the Electronic Registry System, in the case of these the grouping of the regional data is based on the mother's, the deceased's, the wife's place of residence (permanent address).

Source of data: data collection of vital events based on the §30. of the 2016 Act No. CLV.; data collection of the induced abortion is based on the questionnaire No. 1165 called 'Record B for the statistical data supply on the induced abortion'; data transmission on 'Certificate on the Examination of the Deceased', 'Notice Regarding Modification of the Death Certificate', 'Certificate on the Examination of the Perinatal Deceased', 'Notice on Perinatal Death (pathological histology)' according to §42 of the Goverment Regulation 351/2013 (X.4); and according to §28 of the 2016 Act No. CLV. data transfers from the Electronic Registry System.

Migration

Internal migration

Permanent internal migration: changing the permanent place of residence across different settlements within a country.

Temporary internal migration: establishing a temporary place of residence in another settlement within a country or changing temporary place of residence across settlements while maintaining the permanent place of residence.

Temporary internal return migration: leaving the temporary place of residence to return to the permanent place of residence in another settlement.

Balance of permanent internal migration: the difference between the number of persons who establish a permanent place of residence in a given territorial unit and of those who change their permanent place of residence from the same to another territorial unit.

Balance of temporary internal migration: the difference between the total of temporary internal in- and return migration to a given territorial unit, and the sum of the total of temporary internal out- and return migration from the same territorial unit.

Balance of total internal migration: the sum of the temporary and permanent internal migration balances in a given territorial unit.

Source of data: internal migration statistics is based on the registration system of home addresses on which the Ministry of Interior, Deputy State Secretariat for Registers’ provides input data sets. The register contains information on the permanent and the temporary places of residence.

International migration

Foreign citizen immigrating to Hungary: a foreign citizen who entered Hungary in a given year and obtained a residence or settlement permit, or registration certificate in accordance with legal regulations in effect.

Foreign citizen emigrating from Hungary: a foreign citizen with registration certificate, residence or settlement permit who left Hungary in a given year without the intent to return, or whose permit is expired and did not apply for renewal or whose permit was invalidated by the authorities.

Foreign citizen residing in Hungary: a foreign citizen with registration certificate, residence or settlement permit who stayed in Hungary on the 1st January of a given year. Since 1st January 2012, data on foreign citizens residing in Hungary includes recognized refugees and persons taken under subsidiary protection.

Asylum seeker: a foreign citizen or a stateless person who requested international protection from Hungary. The applicant is entitled to reside in Hungary during the examination of an application. The applicant, at the end of the procedure, may obtain a refugee status, subsidiary protection or tolerated stay status.

Refugee: a person whose life and liberty are threatened in his/her country of origin on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion, or whose fear of being subject to persecution is well founded, and who currently resides in the territory of Hungary, submitted an application for asylum and received a positive assessment. Refugee status remains in force until the refugee obtains Hungarian citizenship or the refugee status is withdrawn. The refugee authority is ex officio required to review each refugee status every three years.

Subsidiary protection: a person may be admitted for subsidiary protection if he/she does not qualify as a refugee but in respect of whom there are reasons to believe that the person concerned, if returned to his/her country of origin would face a real risk of suffering serious harm, and is unable, or, owing to such risk, unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country. The refugee authority is ex officio required to review each subsidiary protection status every three years.

Tolerated stay: any person who is provided temporary shelter and may not be returned to the country of his/her citizenship, or in the case of a stateless person to the country of domicile, for fear of facing the threat of the death penalty, torture or any other form of inhumane or humiliating treatment, and there is no safe third country offering refuge, and who is not entitled to asylum nor to any subsidiary form of protection or temporary protection.

Data of refugees, subsidiary protection and tolareted stay status refer to numbers according to final decisions on applications.

Hungarian citizen emigrating from Hungary: a Hungarian citizen leaving Hungary with the intention of settling down or residing abroad for at least 12 months.

Hungarian citizen immigrating to Hungary a Hungarian citizen born abroad entering Hungary in a given year or who had lived abroad and returned to Hungary in order to settle down, as well as Hungarian citizens who returned from a stay abroad for at least 12 months.

Returning Hungarian citizen: a Hungarian-born Hungarian citizen, who returns home after staying abroad for at least 12 months.

Person acquiring Hungarian citizenship: a person who became a Hungarian citizen by naturalisation (born as a foreign citizen) or by re-naturalisation (his/her former Hungarian citizenship was abolished). The tables in Stadat refer only to new Hungarian citizens with an address in Hungary. Persons naturalised in Hungary are those who acquired Hungarian citizenship while already residing in the country.

Balance of international migration: the difference between the number of immigrants to Hungary and emigrants from Hungary with statistical adjustment.

Data sources: registers of immigration permits, registers of residence- and settlement permits of third country nationals, registers of residence and settlement documents of persons with the right of free movement and the asylum register of the National Directorate-General for Aliens Policing, the Register of personal data and addresses of the Ministry of the Interior Deputy State Secretariat for Registers' Management and the Register of the National Health Insurance Fund.

Source of methodology: Demographic Yearbook, 2020 (HCSO, Budapest, 2021).

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