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23. EDUCATION

Source of data: concerning educational institutions, and participants the data collected and processed by the Ministry of Human Capacities, the Ministry for Innovation and Technology, the Educational Authority as well as the National Office of Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning. The data surveys of educational institutions have undergone changes both in content and in methodology since the 2000/2001 school year; they followed the structural and activity systems in accordance with the law. The observed units of the data survey are the educational institutions and participants. Since the 2000/2001 school year October 1st and October 15th of every school year have been designated as the nominal date of the data survey (before the 2000/2001 school year it was a similar date, which nevertheless varied by school-types). Data relating to completed studies refer to the end of the previous school year, adjusted with the results for passing repeated examinations.

In the 2016/2017 school year significant changes started in secondary vocational education which, at the same time, meant a change in the types of schools as well. Special vocational schools were renamed as vocational schools, earlier vocational schools became secondary vocational schools and earlier secondary vocational schools became vocational grammar schools. From this school year on, the common name of secondary general schools, vocational grammar schools and secondary vocational schools is secondary school. From the 2016/2017 school year secondary vocational schools provided programs preparing for final examination at upper secondary level.

In the 2020/201 school year further changes took place in initial education and vocational training, the institutions for initial education and the vocational educational institutions were separated. In the institutions for initial education the teaching of arts, pedagogy and cultural education is take place in upper secondary vocational schools, in the vocational educational institutions, technicums and vocational training schools also run courses of phasing-out vocational grammar schools and secondary vocational schools. From this school year the methodology of data collection on institutions for vocational education has changed, therefore the data on vocational training tasks can be compared with the data of the previous year to a limited extent.

Institutions for initial education, institution for vocational education, school-sites

Institutions for initial education: an institution with a deed of foundation or with a professional basic document for education and training tasks. Tasks may be among others kindergarten, primary school, vocational school, special skills development school, secondary general school, upper secondary vocational school education. One institution for initial education can perform several tasks of initial education within one administrative unit. From the 2013/2014 school year the comparison of the number of institutions for initial education with former years is limited. The reason for this is the changes in organisation structure and maintenance.

Institutions for vocational education: Institutions for vocational education is a legal entity established to perform a basic vocational training task, which has a separate budget from its maintainer. Institutions for vocational education operating as part of a vocational training center is an organizational unit of the vocational training center with legal entity, which does not have an independent budget and can only be subject to the rights and obligations specified in the Government Decree.

School-site: institutional units for education and training tasks within the administrative organization of the initial educational institution, operating at the seat of the institution or at another site, furthermore institutional units operating at the seat or at the same site, but performing another task of initial or vocational education. Statistical data refer to institutions and school-sites operating at the nominal date of the data survey. Concerning the number of nurseries and primary schools before the 2000/2001 school year the school-sites figure as separate institutions.

From the 2013/2014 school year the comparison of the number of school sites with former years is limited. The reason for this is that, in addition to changes in organization structure and maintenance, from the 2013/2014 school year those school sites operating at the same settlement as the seat of the institution or as the member institution but not being a member institution are counted as a separate school site.

Classroom: a room in school with basic equipment. Till the 2000/2001 school year rooms equipped and used exclusively for the accommodation of school classes irrespective of the purpose for which they were built. Since the 2000/2001 school year the number of classrooms does not cover specialized classrooms either, created for the teaching of only one special subject or subject-group.

Grade: a specific stage of teaching and learning the curriculum.

Full-time education: education of school-age students, or older students who are still below 25 years of age, in full-time education.

Adult education, part-time education: school education of persons who are above school-age and who are unable or unwilling to participate in full-time education due to work, family or other engagements. The work schedule of adult education can be organized in accordance with the working order of full-time education, or according to the working order of evening, correspondence or other specific courses.

Non-vocational grades: grades of exclusively general education and grades preparing for final examination at upper secondary level.

Vocational grades: grades according to Vocational Qualification List and National Qualification Registers. In the case of special skills development schools, grades that allow the acquisition of work processes that require simple learning to enable employment.

Kindergarten children, students in initial education, students in tertiary education

Kindergarten children: children enrolled and registered in kindergartens at the date of statistical survey.

Students in institutions for initial and vocational education: children enrolled in an institution of primary or secondary education and registered there at the date of the statistical survey.
(Since the 2000/2001 school year data of the number of primary school students have not contained those students of 5th to 8th grades, who pursued their studies in general secondary schools.)

(Since 2000 data of the number of primary school students have not contained those students of 5th to 8th grades, who pursued their studies in general secondary schools.)

Children / students with special educational needs: means children / students requiring special treatment who, based on the expert opinion of the committee of experts, are handicapped or have perceptual, mental deficiency or speech disorder, or have multiple disabilities in case of the simultaneous occurrence of several deficiencies or have autism spectrum disorder or any other psychic disorder (serious disorder concerning learning or the control of attention or behaviour), children in early childhood intervention and children / students with severe and multiple disabilities.

Disadvantaged children/ student: before 1 September 2013 the determination of disadvantaged state of children was regulated by Act LXXIX of 1993 on Public Education.
From 1 September 2013 Act XXXI of 1997 on Protection of Children and Guardianship Administration includes this regulation. According to the new legislation, disadvantaged children, students are those, who are entitled to a regular child protection allowance, and for whom at least one of the statements (the educational attainment of his/her parents is low, the employment of parents is low and lives in poor living or housing conditions) is true.

Students in tertiary education: persons admitted and enrolled to and registered at a tertiary educational institution. In statistical data releases, we publish those with active student status. From the 2013/2014 school year, the number of males includes students not classified by gender in the data collection.

Students using computer: From 2020/2021 school year, including all students in tertiary educational institutions.

Graduates

Graduates students graduated from 8th grade, students having passed final examination at upper secondary level, students having passed vocational examination, students having graduated in tertiary education.

Students graduated at tertiary education: students having passed the final examination and who met the foreign language requirements according to the training and output requirements, and have obtained a diploma in tertiary undergraduate, postgraduate and undivided training and in university and college level education.

Teachers

Teachers (in institutions for initial and vocational education): staff employed in educational institutions in full- or part-time as teachers, including employed pensioner teachers and those on permanent leave.
In releases of number of teachers data do not include the number of invited lecturers.
From the 2017/2018 school year data on teachers are partly derived from the personal records for employees of the Initial Education Information System.
From the 2020/2021 school year the data also includes instructors in main job in vocational educational institutions.

Teachers (in tertiary education): professors, associate professors, senior lecturers, assistant lecturers, master lecturer, master teacher, language teachers, PE teachers, art teachers, teacher in hall of residence, and other teachers employed full-time or part-time in institutions of tertiary education.

Institution for tertiary education, faculty

Institution for tertiary education: the core activities of an institution for tertiary education are educational, academic research and artistic activities. Institutions for tertiary education comprise universities and colleges. In statistical data releases, we publish institutions providing trainings.

Faculty: means the organisational unit in charge of the instruction, research, and artistic activities of related degree programmes in one or more fields of study or discipline of science as defined in the educational programme.

New entrants: are students who enter for the first time any programme in a given (ISCED-2011) level of education.

Tertiary level vocational training: a vocational qualification may be obtained in tertiary vocational programme, which is certified by a diploma. The diploma awarded for completing tertiary vocational programme shall not be considered an independent degree. Programme and outcome requirements include crediting credits completed in tertiary vocational programme to the Bachelor course offered in the same field of education. The minimum duration of education is 4 semesters.

Tertiary undergraduate (BA/BSc) training: participation in undergraduate studies can lead to an undergraduate degree (baccalaureus, bachelor) and a vocational degree. The undergraduate degree is the first level of tertiary educational attainment, which entitles the holder of the degree to participate in postgraduate master's education. A vocational degree obtained as a result of participation in undergraduate education entitles the holder to fill jobs, dependent upon the given degree, laid down in legal rules. The duration of an undergraduate program is at least six but at most eight semesters. Data of students in preparatory studies, in visiting student status, in international training programmes and in specific subfields of studies are included in the number of BA/BSc training students.

Tertiary postgraduate (MA/MSc) training: participation in postgraduate master's studies can lead to a postgraduate master's degree (magister, master) and a vocational qualification. A vocational qualification obtained as a result of participation in postgraduate master's education entitles the holder to fill jobs, dependent upon the given degree, laid down in legal rules. The master's degree is the second level of tertiary education attainment. The duration of a postgraduate master's program is at least two but at most four semesters.

Undivided training: an undivided one-tier programme resulting in Master degree is a training with the length of 10–12 semesters. For example medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmaceutics, law, architecture, primary/secondary school teachers.

Postgraduate specialisation: training for a specialised qualification, based on a university or college diploma (a bachelor's or master's equivalent degree), attested by a certificate. This qualification is not a separate degree in itself.

PhD, DLA: postgraduate training provided by institutions for tertiary education, which serves to prepare students for work in scientific (PhD) and artistic (DLA) research.

Form

Full-time form: full-time education.

Part-time form: evening, correspondence and distance education.

Other definitions

Non-formal training: any training in which the participants do not have a student legal status with the training institution.

PISA: PISA is the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), it measures 15-year-olds' ability to use their reading, mathematics and science knowledge and skills. Percentage of low-performing students in PISA surveys shows the proportion of 15-year-olds who score below the baseline level of proficiency in mathematics, reading and science, that is, who are proficient at Level 1 or below.

PIAAC: The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) is a programme of assessment and analysis of adult skills. The survey measures proficiency of the adult population aged 16 to 65 in key information-processing skills – literacy, numeracy and problem solving – and gathers information and data on how adults use their skills at home, at work and in the wider community.

Computers used for educational purposes: Total number of computers used for educational and research purposes (number of desktops and laptops combined) located in a digitally supported teaching / learning space (rooms, laboratories, etc.).
From 2020/2021 school year, due to methodological changes, the comparison of the number of computers used for educational purposes with former years is limited.

Indicators

Children / Students per teacher: ratio of children / full-time students to teachers. In the case of geographical breakdown of teachers and students, the territorial unit of the school-sites was considered.

Children per children-group: ratio of kindergarten children to children-groups.

Students per class: ratio of students in full-time education to classes in full-time education.

Expenditure on education of the budgetary institutions as a percentage of GDP: it shows the total current expenditure on education of state and local government institutions as a percentage of GDP.

Share of kindergarten children in the 3–5 year-old population: the indicator expresses the proportion of the population aged 3–5 who participate in kindergarten education. In the case of geographical breakdown of kindergarten children, the territorial unit of the school-sites was considered.

Share of participants in full-time education in the 16 year-old population: the indicator expresses the proportion of the population aged 16 who participate in full-time formal education. In the case of geographical breakdown of students, the territorial unit of the school-sites was considered.

Share of participants in full-time education in the 20 year-old population: the indicator expresses the proportion of the population aged 20 who participate in full-time formal education. In the case of geographical breakdown of students, the territorial unit of the school-sites and task units was considered.

Share of participants in full-time education in the 3–22 year-old population: the indicator expresses the proportion of the population aged 3–22 who participate in full-time formal education.

Students having passed final examination at secondary level in full-time education as a % of the 18 year-old population: the proportion of the 18-year-old population who in the given year having passed final examination at secondary level in full-time education. In the case of geographical breakdown of graduates, the territorial unit of the school-sites was considered.

Students having graduated in full-time tertiary education as a % of the 22 year-old population: the proportion of the 22-year-old population who in the given year having graduated in full-time tertiary education. In the case of geographical breakdown of graduates, the territorial unit of the task units was considered.

Capacity rate of kindergartens: number of children in kindergartens as a percentage of kindergarten places.

Kindergarten children per thousand inhabitants: ratio of kindergarten children to thousand inhabitants. In the case of geographical breakdown of kindergarten children, the territorial unit of the school-sites was considered.

Full-time students per thousand inhabitants: ratio of students in full-time education to thousand inhabitants. In the case of geographical breakdown of students, the territorial unit of the school-sites was considered.

Full-time students in tertiary undergraduate (BA/BSc) and postgraduate (MA/MSc) training per thousand inhabitants: ratio of students in full-time tertiary undergraduate (BA/BSc) and postgraduate (MA/MSc) training to thousand inhabitants. In the case of geographical breakdown of students, the permanent place of residence was considered.


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