Denomination 2018 2019 2020
Total R&D personnel in head count
R&D institutes and other goverment research units 12,627 12,846 12,130
Higher education 31,083 33,600 33,539
Business enterprises 35,677 38,205 41,764
Total 79,387 84,651 87,433
Total R&D personnel in head count, females
R&D institutes and other goverment research units 4,691 6,478 5,376
Higher education 13,254 15,164 14,844
Business enterprises 8,232 8,516 9,134
Total 26,177 30,158 29,354
Researchers in head count
R&D institutes and other goverment research units 7,906 8,046 8,285
Higher education 23,288 24,612 24,945
Business enterprises 23,776 25,433 28,947
Total 54,970 58,091 62,177
Researchers in head count, females
R&D institutes and other goverment research units 2,745 3,379 3,192
Higher education 8,417 9,574 9,522
Business enterprises 4,204 4,480 4,999
Total 15,366 17,433 17,713

Footnotes

*
Total = internal + external
.