Denomination 2018 2019 2020 2021
Total R&D personnel in head count
R&D institutes and other goverment research units 12,627 12,846 12,130 11,377
Higher education 31,083 33,600 33,539 34,171
Business enterprises 35,677 38,205 41,764 42,191
Total 79,387 84,651 87,433 87,739
Total R&D personnel in head count, females
R&D institutes and other goverment research units 4,691 6,478 5,376 5,062
Higher education 13,254 15,164 14,844 15,092
Business enterprises 8,232 8,516 9,134 9,557
Total 26,177 30,158 29,354 29,711
Researchers in head count
R&D institutes and other goverment research units 7,906 8,046 8,285 7,794
Higher education 23,288 24,612 24,945 25,827
Business enterprises 23,776 25,433 28,947 29,599
Total 54,970 58,091 62,177 63,220
Researchers in head count, females
R&D institutes and other goverment research units 2,745 3,379 3,192 3,147
Higher education 8,417 9,574 9,522 10,101
Business enterprises 4,204 4,480 4,999 5,425
Total 15,366 17,433 17,713 18,673

Footnotes

*
Total = internal + external
.