Year Intramural R&D expenditure R&D expenditure R&D expenditure R&D expenditure
of all R&D unitsa of which: of R&D institutes and other government research units of which: in higher education units of which: of business enterprises of which:
R&D current cost R&D capital expenditure R&D current costb R&D capital expenditure R&D current cost R&D capital expenditure R&D current cost R&D capital expenditure
1990 33,725 21,164 3,317 10,147 8,225 1,922 4,806 4,305 501 9,528 8,634 894
1991 27,103 21,191 2,209 9,665 8,477 1,188 5,424 4,964 460 8,311 7,750 561
1992 31,632 23,044 3,359 11,433 10,239 1,194 6,628 5,900 728 8,343 6,905 1,437
1993 35,252 25,012 3,593 11,967 10,555 1,411 7,843 6,776 1,067 8,796 7,681 1,115
1994 40,288 31,311 4,680 13,514 11,774 1,740 10,271 8,895 1,376 12,206 10,642 1,564
1995 42,310 35,030 4,713 13,413 12,286 1,127 10,201 8,791 1,410 16,129 13,953 2,176
1996 46,027 39,041 5,332 17,297 15,694 1,603 11,127 9,970 1,157 15,949 13,377 2,572
1997 63,591 49,044 8,141 20,703 18,166 2,537 14,199 13,066 1,133 22,283 17,812 4,471
1998 71,186 56,240 11,380 24,682 20,792 3,890 17,283 15,316 1,967 25,655 20,132 5,523
1999 78,188 61,467 12,711 25,247 22,140 3,107 17,472 15,869 1,603 31,458 23,457 8,001
2000 105,388 81,356 18,152 27,494 24,472 3,022 25,310 23,123 2,187 46,704 33,761 12,943
2001 140,605 105,230 23,727 36,391 30,579 5,812 36,193 32,321 3,871 56,372 42,329 14,043
2002 171,470 134,166 26,125 56,328 47,363 8,965 43,135 37,738 5,397 60,828 49,065 11,763
2003 175,773 138,523 28,106 55,091 46,716 8,375 46,972 40,923 6,049 64,566 50,884 13,682
2004 181,525 147,708 25,188 53,640 48,731 4,909 44,615 40,343 4,272 74,641 58,635 16,006
2005 207,764 167,923 32,197 58,171 53,163 5,008 52,246 45,233 7,013 89,703 69,528 20,175
2006 237,953 191,445 41,743 60,373 55,302 5,071 57,943 51,400 6,543 114,872 84,743 30,129
2007 245,693 212,358 28,013 59,337 55,177 4,160 57,365 52,494 4,871 123,669 104,686 18,983
2008 266,388 230,596 30,464 62,314 58,065 4,249 58,704 54,476 4,228 140,042 118,055 21,987
2009 299,159 258,842 35,019 60,003 56,458 3,545 62,633 58,429 4,204 171,225 143,955 27,270
2010 310,211 269,321 35,496 57,450 50,495 6,955 61,819 56,088 5,731 185,548 162,738 22,810
2011 336,537 293,163 37,870 53,036 47,576 5,460 67,924 61,026 6,898 210,073 184,561 25,512
2012 363,683 301,490 56,667 52,528 42,277 10,251 66,958 56,484 10,474 238,671 202,729 35,942
2013 420,100 340,797 73,917 62,572 47,430 15,142 60,464 55,327 5,137 291,679 238,041 53,638
2014 441,092 372,190 63,454 60,608 52,450 8,158 59,537 55,011 4,527 315,499 264,730 50,769
2015 468,390 403,378 59,589 62,241 53,888 8,353 56,742 51,450 5,292 343,984 298,039 45,944
2016 427,192 372,459 49,163 57,299 52,648 4,650 47,611 44,060 3,551 316,711 275,750 40,961
2017 517,258 436,307 75,569 64,956 54,237 10,719 68,748 59,804 8,944 378,171 322,265 55,906
2018c 654,163 536,043 112,771 71,132 60,074 11,058 83,133 71,507 11,627 494,550 404,463 90,087
2019 702,199 585,569 111,631 70,216 62,549 7,667 99,695 89,184 10,511 527,290 433,837 93,453
2020 771,490 630,182 136,161 76,524 70,097 6,427 100,007 88,251 11,757 589,811 471,834 117,977

Footnotes

a
Including the honorariums and salary supplements based on scientific degree and paid by government, amounts of state scientific scholarships and until 2005 government funds utilised outside the observed R&D units. From 1999 costs and expenditure excluding amortization.
b
Including amounts spent on renovation.
c
From 2018, capital expenditure includes amounts spent on the purchase of intangible assets, and due to this methodological change, data are not fully comparable with data for the previous period.
.