Denomination 2018 2019 2020
Total R&D personnel in full-time equivalent
R&D institutes and other government research units 10,633 9,708 9,984
Higher education 12,994 14,111 14,703
Business enterprises 31,027 33,124 34,941
Total 54,654 56,943 59,628
Total R&D personnel in full-time equivalent, females
R&D institutes and other government research units 3,738 4,643 4,370
Higher education 5,240 6,056 6,319
Business enterprises 7,292 7,549 7,879
Total 16,270 18,248 18,568
Researchers in full-time equivalent
R&D institutes and other government research units 6,592 6,495 6,848
Higher education 9,547 9,999 10,603
Business enterprises 21,467 22,801 24,648
Total 37,606 39,295 42,099
Researchers in full-time equivalent, females
R&D institutes and other government research units 2,149 2,719 2,622
Higher education 3,281 3,779 3,926
Business enterprises 3,815 4,036 4,350
Total 9,245 10,534 10,898

Footnotes

*
Total = internal + external. Staff number converted to full-time employees, i.e. staff number weighted with the ratio of time spent on actual research and development to total working hours.
.