Denomination 2018 2019 2020 2021
Total R&D personnel in full-time equivalent
R&D institutes and other government research units 10,633 9,708 9,984 9,605
Higher education 12,994 14,111 14,703 14,289
Business enterprises 31,027 33,124 34,941 34,738
Total 54,654 56,943 59,628 58,632
Total R&D personnel in full-time equivalent, females
R&D institutes and other government research units 3,738 4,643 4,370 4,186
Higher education 5,240 6,056 6,319 6,207
Business enterprises 7,292 7,549 7,879 8,223
Total 16,270 18,248 18,568 18,616
Researchers in full-time equivalent
R&D institutes and other government research units 6,592 6,495 6,848 6,630
Higher education 9,547 9,999 10,603 10,351
Business enterprises 21,467 22,801 24,648 24,674
Total 37,606 39,295 42,099 41,655
Researchers in full-time equivalent, females
R&D institutes and other government research units 2,149 2,719 2,622 2,616
Higher education 3,281 3,779 3,926 4,021
Business enterprises 3,815 4,036 4,350 4,645
Total 9,245 10,534 10,898 11,282

Footnotes

*
Total = internal + external. Staff number converted to full-time employees, i.e. staff number weighted with the ratio of time spent on actual research and development to total working hours.
.