Year R&D units' Innovation-active enterprises as a percentage of total enterprises
R&D staff as a percentage of total labour forcea of which: researchers R&D capital expenditure as a percentage of national investments Intramural R&D expenditure as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP)
1990 0.81 0.39 1.27 1.60 ..
1991 0.63 0.31 0.45 1.07 ..
1992 0.57 0.29 0.60 1.05 ..
1993 0.58 0.30 0.56 0.98 ..
1994 0.59 0.32 0.56 0.89 ..
1995 0.54 0.29 0.71
0.71b
..
1996 0.55 0.29 0.40 0.63 ..
1997 0.57 0.31 0.48 0.70 ..
1998 0.56 0.32 0.53 0.66 ..
1999 0.56 0.33 0.52 0.67 ..
2000 0.61 0.37 0.64 0.79 ..
2001 0.59 0.38 0.75 0.91 ..
2002 0.61 0.39 0.74 0.98 ..
2003 0.59 0.39 0.76 0.92 ..
2004 0.59 0.38 0.60 0.86 ..
2005 0.60 0.41 0.72 0.92 ..
2006
0.66c
0.45 0.90 0.98 ..
2007 0.67 0.45 0.59 0.95 ..
2008 0.71 0.48 0.62 0.98 ..
2009
0.77d
0.52 0.75 1.13 ..
2010 0.81 0.55 0.79 1.13 31.1
2011 0.87 0.59 0.86 1.18 ..
2012 0.90 0.60 1.33 1.25 32.5
2013 0.95 0.62 1.62 1.38 ..
2014 0.88 0.62 1.15 1.34 25.6
2015 0.85 0.58 0.98 1.34 ..
2016 0.80 0.58 0.92 1.18 29.0
2017 0.89 0.62 1.10 1.32 ..
2018 0.99 0.68 1.03 1.51
28.7e
2019 1.05 0.72 0.93 1.48 ..
2020 1.10 0.77 0.88 1.61 ..

Footnotes

a
Internal full-time equivalents (FTE).
b
Calculation of GDP is based on ESA 2010 methology.
c
Grossing up of LFS data is based on the adjusted population number of 2011 census dating back to 2006.
d
As the number of employed persons was adjusted based on a new methodology from 1 January 2021, the data were revised back to 2009, so the comparability with previous years is limited.
e
Break in series in 2016–2018 is due to change in the methodology of innovation data collection. See methodological guide.
.