Denomination 1941 1949 1960 1970 1980 1990 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Population, 1st Januarya
male
4,560,875b
4,423,420 4,804,043 5,003,651 5,188,709 4,984,904 4,851,012 4,836,980 4,818,456 4,804,113 4,793,115 4,784,579 4,779,078 4,769,562 4,763,050 4,756,900 4,743,901 4,724,666 4,715,953 4,703,391 4,695,779 4,688,519 4,675,291 4,671,602 4,675,821 4,680,790 4,663,794
female
4,755,199b
4,781,379 5,157,001 5,318,448 5,520,754 5,389,919 5,349,286 5,337,873 5,323,906 5,312,629 5,304,434 5,292,002 5,287,080 5,275,839 5,267,925 5,257,424 5,241,821 5,207,259 5,192,845 5,173,974 5,159,792 5,141,966 5,122,270 5,106,769 5,096,935 5,088,736 5,066,978
total
9,316,074b
9,204,799 9,961,044 10,322,099 10,709,463 10,374,823 10,200,298 10,174,853 10,142,362 10,116,742 10,097,549 10,076,581 10,066,158 10,045,401 10,030,975 10,014,324 9,985,722 9,931,925 9,908,798 9,877,365 9,855,571 9,830,485 9,797,561 9,778,371 9,772,756 9,769,526 9,730,772
Average age, 1st January
male
31.0b
31.5 32.5 34.3 34.6 35.5 37.1 37.3 37.5 37.7 37.9 38.0 38.2 38.4 38.5 38.7 38.9 39.3 39.5 39.7 39.9 40.0 40.2 40.3 40.5 40.6 40.8
female
32.1b
33.3 34.8 37.0 37.7 39.0 41.1 41.3 41.6 41.8 42.0 42.2 42.4 42.6 42.8 43.0 43.2 43.5 43.7 43.9 44.1 44.2 44.4 44.5 44.7 44.8 44.9
total
31.6b
32.4 33.6 35.7 36.2 37.3 39.2 39.4 39.6 39.8 40.1 40.2 40.4 40.6 40.8 40.9 41.1 41.5 41.7 41.9 42.1 42.2 42.4 42.5 42.7 42.8 42.9
Ageing index 26.9 30.3 35.2 54.4 61.9 64.5 91.3 93.5 95.4 97.6 99.9 102.4 104.9 107.6 109.9 112.6 114.7 116.4 118.9 121.5 123.6 126.1 128.5 130.2 132.9 136.6 139.5
Number of females per thousand males
1,043b
1,081 1,073 1,063 1,064 1,081 1,103 1,104 1,105 1,106 1,107 1,106 1,106 1,106 1,106 1,105 1,105 1,102 1,101 1,100 1,099 1,097 1,096 1,093 1,090 1,087 1,086
Density per km²
100.1b
98.9 107.1 111.0 115.1 111.5 109.6 109.4 109.0 108.7 108.5 108.3 108.2 108.0 107.8 107.6 107.3 106.8 106.5 106.2 106.0 105.7 105.3 105.1 105.1 105.0 104.6
Marriages
number 79,074 107,820 88,566 96,612 80,331 66,405 43,583 46,008 45,398 43,791 44,234 44,528 40,842 40,105 36,730 35,520 35,812 36,161 36,986 38,780 46,137 51,805 50,572 50,828 65,268 67,095 ..
per thousand inhabitants 8.5 11.7 8.9 9.3 7.5 6.4 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.1 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.7 5.3 5.2 5.2 6.7 6.9 ..
Divorces
number
6,858c
12,556 16,590 22,841 27,797 24,888 24,391 25,506 25,046 24,638 24,804 24,869 25,160 25,155 23,820 23,873 23,335 21,830 20,209 19,576 20,315 19,552 18,495 16,952 17,600 14,979 ..
per thousand inhabitants
0.5c
1.4 1.7 2.2 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.8 1.5 ..
Live births
number 177,047 190,398 146,461 151,819 148,673 125,679 97,047 96,804 94,647 95,137 97,496 99,871 97,613 99,149 96,442 90,335 88,049 90,269 88,689 91,510 91,690 93,063 91,577 89,807 89,193 92,338 ..
per thousand inhabitants 18.9 20.6 14.7 14.7 13.9 12.1 9.5 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.7 9.9 9.7 9.9 9.6 9.0 8.8 9.1 9.0 9.3 9.3 9.5 9.4 9.2 9.1 9.5 ..
Deaths
number 123,349 105,718 101,525 120,197 145,355 145,660 132,183 132,833 135,823 132,492 135,732 131,603 132,938 130,027 130,414 130,456 128,795 129,440 126,778 126,308 131,697 127,053 131,674 131,045 129,603 141,002 ..
per thousand inhabitants 13.2 11.4 10.2 11.6 13.6 14.0 13.0 13.1 13.4 13.1 13.5 13.1 13.2 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.9 13.0 12.8 12.8 13.4 12.9 13.5 13.4 13.3 14.5 ..
Natural increase, decrease (–)
number 53,698 84,680 44,936 31,622 3,318 -19,981 -35,136 -36,029 -41,176 -37,355 -38,236 -31,732 -35,325 -30,878 -33,972 -40,121 -40,746 -39,171 -38,089 -34,798 -40,007 -33,990 -40,097 -41,238 -40,410 -48,664 ..
per thousand inhabitants 5.7 9.2 4.5 3.1 0.3 -1.9 -3.4 -3.5 -4.1 -3.7 -3.8 -3.2 -3.5 -3.1 -3.4 -4.0 -4.1 -3.9 -3.9 -3.5 -4.1 -3.5 -4.1 -4.2 -4.1 -5.0 ..
Total fertility rate
2.48d
2.54 2.02 1.98 1.91 1.87 1.31 1.30 1.27 1.27 1.30 1.34 1.31 1.35 1.32 1.25 1.23 1.34 1.34 1.41 1.44 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.56 ..
Reproduction rates
crude
1.194d
1.223 0.975 0.956 0.932 0.912 0.633 0.633 0.614 0.621 0.631 0.654 0.641 0.656 0.641 0.609 0.597 0.645 0.651 0.688 0.699 0.726 0.726 0.723 0.721 0.757 ..
net
0.972d
1.060 0.918 0.915 0.904 0.891 0.624 0.624 0.606 0.614 0.623 0.646 0.633 0.648 0.634 0.602 0.590 0.638 0.644 0.681 0.692 0.715 0.720 0.716 0.715 0.751 ..
Average life expectancy at the birth
males 54.95 59.28 65.89 66.31 65.45 65.13 68.15 68.26 68.29 68.59 68.56 69.03 69.19 69.79 70.05 70.50 70.93 71.45 72.01 72.13 72.09 72.43 72.40 72.56 72.86 72.21 ..
females 58.24 63.40 70.10 72.08 72.70 73.71 76.46 76.56 76.53 76.91 76.93 77.35 77.34 77.76 77.89 78.11 78.23 78.38 78.73 78.91 78.61 79.21 78.99 79.19 79.33 78.74 ..
total .. 61.36 68.03 69.20 69.02 69.33 72.32 72.43 72.43 72.78 72.76 73.21 73.30 73.83 74.03 74.38 74.67 75.00 75.47 75.61 75.44 75.91 75.77 75.94 76.16 75.52 ..
Foetal losses
induced abortions
number ..
1,707e
162,160 192,283 80,882 90,394 56,404 56,075 53,789 52,539 48,689 46,324 43,870 44,089 43,181 40,449 38,443 36,118 34,891 32,663 31,176 30,439 28,496 26,941 25,783 23,901 ..
per hundred live-born ..
0.9e
110.7 126.7 54.4 71.9 58.1 57.9 56.8 55.2 49.9 46.4 44.9 44.5 44.8 44.8 43.7 40.0 39.3 35.7 34.0 32.7 31.1 30.0 28.9 25.9 ..
foetal deaths
number ..
38,428e
35,756 31,357 21,128 18,295 16,292 17,035 16,845 16,879 17,528 17,847 17,247 17,714 17,885 16,710 17,220 16,450 16,497 16,456 16,802 17,204 16,542 16,220 16,497 15,300 ..
per hundred live-born ..
19.6e
24.4 20.6 14.2 14.6 16.8 17.6 17.8 17.7 18.0 17.9 17.7 17.9 18.5 18.5 19.6 18.2 18.6 18.0 18.3 18.5 18.1 18.1 18.5 16.6 ..
total
number ..
40,135e
197,916 223,640 102,010 108,689 72,696 73,110 70,634 69,418 66,217 64,171 61,117 61,803 61,066 57,159 55,663 52,568 51,388 49,119 47,978 47,643 45,038 43,161 42,280 39,201 ..
per hundred live-born ..
20.5e
135.1 147.3 68.6 86.5 74.9 75.5 74.6 73.0 67.9 64.3 62.6 62.3 63.3 63.3 63.2 58.2 57.9 53.7 52.3 51.2 49.2 48.1 47.4 42.5 ..
Infant deaths
number 20,458 17,327 6,976 5,449 3,443 1,863 789 693 690 628 607 571 577 553 495 481 433 438 454 421 383 368 332 304 335 319 ..
per thousand live-born 115.6 91.0 47.6 35.9 23.2 14.8 8.1 7.2 7.3 6.6 6.2 5.7 5.9 5.6 5.1 5.3 4.9 4.9 5.1 4.6 4.2 4.0 3.6 3.4 3.8 3.5 ..

Footnotes

a
Until 1990, population numbers are full-scope population census data, between 2001 and 2011 data are updated on the basis of the census 1st February 2001, while data from 2012 are calculated on the basis of the census 1st October 2011.
b
31st January.
c
Data refer to the area of the country of that time.
d
Data refer to 1940–1941 years.
e
1950 data.
.