Country, group of countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Austria 9.6 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.1 9.1 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.4 9.4 9.2 9.6 9.2 9.5 9.5 9.4 10.3 10.3
Belgium 10.2 10.1 10.2 10.3 9.7 9.9 9.6 9.5 9.8 9.6 9.7 9.4 9.8 9.8 9.3 9.8 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.5 11.0 9.7
Bulgaria 14.1 14.0 14.4 14.4 14.3 14.8 14.9 15.0 14.8 14.5 14.9 14.7 15.0 14.4 15.1 15.3 15.1 15.5 15.4 15.5 18.0 21.7
Cyprus 7.7 6.9 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.3 6.8 7.0 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.0 6.4 6.9 6.4 7.0 6.6 7.1 7.2 7.9
Czechia 10.6 10.5 10.6 10.9 10.5 10.6 10.2 10.2 10.1 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.0 10.5 10.2 10.5 10.6 10.5 12.1 13.3
Denmark 10.9 10.9 10.9 10.7 10.3 10.1 10.2 10.2 9.9 9.9 9.8 9.4 9.4 9.3 9.1 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.8
Estonia 13.2 13.3 13.3 13.2 13.0 12.8 12.9 13.0 12.5 12.1 11.9 11.5 11.7 11.6 11.8 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.6 11.9 14.0
Finland 9.5 9.4 9.5 9.4 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.3 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.4 9.6 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.8 9.8 9.9 9.8 10.0 10.4
France 8.9 8.8 8.8 9.1 8.3 8.5 8.3 8.3 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.4 8.7 8.7 8.4 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.9 9.7
Greece 9.7 9.4 9.5 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.8 10.0 10.6 10.2 10.4 11.2 11.0 11.6 11.2 11.7 12.2
13.5a
Netherlands 8.8 8.7 8.8 8.7 8.4 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.2 8.1 8.2 8.1 8.4 8.4 8.3 8.7 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.8 9.7 9.8
Croatia 11.2 11.5 11.7 12.2 11.5 12.0 11.7 12.1 12.1 12.2 12.1 11.9 12.1 11.8 12.0 12.9 12.4 12.9 12.9 12.7 14.1 15.8
Ireland 8.2 7.8 7.5 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.3
6.4a
6.3a
6.5 6.6
Poland 9.6 9.5 9.4 9.6 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.9 10.0 10.1 9.9 9.9 10.1 10.2 9.9 10.4 10.2 10.6
10.9a
10.8a
12.6a
13.8a
Latvia 13.6 14.1 14.1 14.2 14.2 14.6 14.9 15.0 14.2 14.0 14.3 13.9 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.4 14.6 14.8 15.0 14.5 15.2 18.4
Lithuania 11.1 11.6 11.9 12.0 12.2 13.2 13.7 14.1 13.7 13.3 13.6 13.6 13.7 14.0 13.7 14.4 14.3 14.2 14.1 13.7 15.6 17.0
Luxembourg 8.6 8.4 8.4 9.0 7.8 7.8 8.0 8.1 7.4 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.0 6.9 7.0 6.8 7.1 7.1 6.9 7.3 7.0
Hungary 13.3 13.0 13.1 13.4 13.1 13.5 13.1 13.2 13.0 13.0 13.0 12.9 13.0 12.8 12.8 13.4 13.0 13.5 13.4 13.3 14.5 16.1
Malta 7.5 7.4 7.6 7.9 7.5 7.8 7.9 7.6 7.9 7.8 7.3 7.8 8.1 7.6 7.5 7.7 7.3 7.6 7.6 7.3 7.9 8.0
Germany 10.2 10.1 10.2 10.3 9.9 10.1 10.0 10.1 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.8 11.1 10.7 11.3 11.1 11.3 11.5 11.3 11.9 12.3
Italy 9.8 9.6 9.8 10.2 9.5 9.8 9.6 9.8 9.9 10.0 9.9 10.0 10.3 10.0 9.8 10.7 10.1 10.7 10.5 10.6 12.5 12.0
Portugal 10.2 10.1 10.2 10.4 9.7 10.2 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.9 10.0 9.7 10.2 10.2 10.1 10.5 10.7 10.7 11.0 10.9 12.0 12.1
Romania 11.4 11.7 12.4 12.4 12.1 12.3 12.2 12.1 12.3 12.6 12.8 12.5 12.7 12.4 12.8 13.2 13.1 13.4 13.6
13.4a
15.5a
17.5a
Spain 8.9 8.8 8.8 9.1 8.6 8.8 8.3 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.2 8.3 8.6 8.3 8.5 9.1 8.8 9.1 9.1 8.8 10.4 9.5
Sweden 10.5 10.5 10.6 10.4 10.1 10.2 10.0 10.0 9.9 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.7 9.4 9.2 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.1 8.6 9.5 8.8
Slovakia 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.7 9.7 10.0 9.9 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.9 9.6 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.9 9.6 9.9 10.0 9.8 10.8 13.5
Slovenia 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.7 9.3 9.4 9.1 9.2 9.1 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.4 9.4 9.2 9.6 9.5 9.9 9.9 9.9 11.4 11.0
EU27_2020 9.9 9.9 10.0 10.1 9.7 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.9 9.9 9.8 10.1 10.0 9.9 10.4 10.2 10.5
10.5a
10.4a
11.6a
11.9a
United Kingdom 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.2 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.0 8.9 8.7 8.9 9.0 8.8 9.2 9.1 9.2 9.2 9.0 .. ..
Iceland 6.5 6.1 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.7 6.3 6.6 6.9 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3
North Macedonia 8.5 8.3 8.8 8.9 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.6 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.5 9.8 9.3 9.5 9.9 9.9 9.8 9.5 9.8 12.4 14.6
Montenegro 9.0 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.7 9.3 9.5 9.1 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.7 10.2 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.6 11.7 14.8
Norway 9.8 9.7 9.8 9.3 9.0 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 8.4 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.8
Russia 15.3 15.6 16.2 16.4 15.9 16.1 15.1 14.6 14.5 14.1 14.2 13.5 13.3 13.0 13.1 13.0 12.9 12.4 12.5 12.3 14.6 ..
Switzerland 8.7 8.5 8.5 8.6 8.1 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.0 8.1 8.0 7.8 8.0 8.0 7.8 8.2 7.8 7.9 7.9 7.9 8.8 8.2
Serbia 13.8 13.2 13.7 13.9 14.0 14.3 13.9 13.9 14.0 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.0 14.2 14.6 14.3 14.8 14.6 14.6 16.9 20.0
Turkey 7.1 6.9 6.6 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.0 5.1 5.4 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3
5.2a
5.3a
.. ..
India 8.7 8.6 8.4 8.3 8.2 8.1 8.0 7.8 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 ..
Israel 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.1 5.3 ..
Japan 7.7 7.7 8.1 8.4 8.1 8.5 8.5 8.7 9.1 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.3 10.5 10.8 11.0 11.0 11.1 ..
China 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 ..
Republic of Korea 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.9 ..
Egypt 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.7 ..
Brazil 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.6 ..
United States 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.4 8.2 8.3 8.1 8.0 8.1 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.7 10.3 ..
Canada 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.6 8.1 ..
Mexico 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 ..
Australia 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.7 6.3 ..
New Zealand 6.9 7.2 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.5 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.6 6.9 6.8 6.9 6.4 ..

Footnotes

*
Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg); World Development Indicators (The World Bank, Washington D.C.). Download date: September 30, 2022.
a
Estimated figure.
.