Country, group of countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
volume change (on previous year, per cent) as % of GDP
Austria 3.1 1.3 0.7 1.7 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.3 0.5 -0.1 0.3 0.5 1.5 1.9 1.1 0.8 -9.2 50.0
Belgium 2.8 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.1 1.4 0.6 3.0 0.9 1.5 1.7 0.6 1.6 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.5 -8.7 49.8
Bulgaria 9.3 7.7 5.8 6.4 9.4 7.5 8.5 11.3 3.4 -4.3 0.3 2.6 3.3 -2.6 2.9 3.8 3.5 3.8 4.4 5.5 0.2 59.9
Cyprus 8.0 5.5 3.1 4.4 7.2 3.9 3.9 9.7 8.2 -6.5 4.6 -0.9 -2.8 -7.0 -0.1 3.1 5.1 4.9 4.7 1.8 -3.9 65.8
Czechia 1.5 3.0 3.1 5.1 2.9 3.6 3.8 4.1 3.0 -0.5 1.4 0.4 -1.1 0.9 1.4 3.9 3.8 4.0 3.5 3.0 -5.2 46.9
Denmark 0.4 0.2 1.4 1.3 4.6 3.7 2.9 1.8 0.5 -3.4 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.9 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.7 1.4 -1.9 45.6
Estonia 7.0 6.9 9.7 9.7 8.1 9.7 12.8 8.4 -4.5 -13.7 -0.9 3.5 4.4 3.6 3.6 5.0 4.5 2.9 4.6 3.3 -2.3 49.2
Finland 2.1 2.7 2.5 4.1 3.8 3.2 3.9 3.5 2.0 -2.9 3.0 2.9 0.4 -0.5 0.6 1.6 2.4 0.8 1.8 0.7 -4.9 50.6
France 3.7 2.5 2.1 1.5 2.0 2.4 2.1 2.6 0.5 0.3 1.9 0.6 -0.4 0.5 0.8 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.0 1.8 -7.1 53.1
Greece 2.5 3.6 5.1 4.5 3.6 3.2 2.8 4.1 3.6 -1.7 -6.5 -8.7 -7.5 -3.5 0.0 -0.3 -0.5 1.9 2.3 1.9 -5.2 71.7
Netherlands 3.7 2.0 1.2 -0.1 0.8 0.9 -0.2 1.9 0.9 -1.9 0.1 0.1 -1.1 -1.0 0.4 2.0 1.1 2.1 2.2 0.9 -6.6 41.9
Croatia 4.5 5.2 9.5 4.6 4.6 4.6 1.3 5.0 3.0 -8.8 -1.5 1.1 -2.4 -1.5 -2.5 0.4 3.1 3.1 3.3 3.5 -6.2 58.9
Ireland 10.4 4.7 3.6 2.8 3.8 7.0 6.4 6.7 0.2 -5.3 0.3 -1.4 -0.8 0.4 2.5 3.1 5.1 2.2 2.6 3.2 -9.0 25.9
Poland 2.9 2.0 3.9 1.4 4.3 1.8 4.7 5.6 6.7 3.4 2.6 2.8 0.4 0.2 2.5 3.7 4.0 4.7 4.5 3.9 -3.1 56.8
Latvia 2.2 5.1 6.0 8.0 9.7 10.5 18.7 11.2 -8.4 -15.7 2.1 3.1 4.3 5.6 0.6 2.2 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.2 -10.0 56.0
Lithuania 6.9 4.2 6.0 11.4 10.9 11.6 9.1 12.5 3.9 -17.4 -3.1 4.3 3.1 4.3 3.7 4.1 4.1 3.5 3.7 3.4 -2.0 59.7
Luxembourg 4.3 3.8 4.4 2.3 0.9 -0.1 2.8 2.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 2.9 2.0 4.1 1.8 3.4 2.2 3.3 2.8 -6.9 27.5
Hungary 3.1 4.5 7.9 8.4 2.0 2.9 1.5 1.0 -1.3 -6.7 -1.2 0.9 -2.3 -0.2 2.4 3.8 4.7 5.0 5.1 5.1 -2.3 49.5
Malta .. 2.3 -2.2 5.4 2.8 4.3 2.6 1.6 -0.4 1.1 2.0 3.4 0.6 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.6 3.4 9.1 4.5 -8.0 45.5
Germany 1.6 1.2 -1.4 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.3 -0.2 0.3 -0.1 0.7 1.8 1.5 0.4 1.1 1.9 2.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 -6.0 51.3
Italy 2.7 0.6 0.0 0.7 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.2 -1.1 -1.5 1.1 0.1 -3.7 -2.4 0.2 1.8 1.2 1.5 0.9 0.3 -10.7 57.9
Portugal 3.7 0.9 1.3 -0.3 2.6 1.6 1.5 2.5 1.4 -2.3 2.4 -3.7 -5.3 -1.0 2.4 2.0 2.6 2.1 2.6 2.6
-5.8a
64.1a
Romania 1.5 8.3 7.1 8.4 15.8 11.2 10.2 13.8 8.7 -6.4 -5.0 1.1 1.9 0.4 4.1 5.9 8.0 10.8 7.7 4.1 -5.2 61.1
Spain 4.4 3.9 3.1 2.4 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.4 -0.7 -3.6 0.4 -2.5 -3.3 -2.9 1.7 2.9 2.7 3.0 1.8 0.9 -12.1 56.0
Sweden 5.4 0.8 2.3 1.6 2.9 3.2 3.0 4.0 0.4 1.0 4.2 2.0 0.7 1.8 2.9 3.9 2.3 2.6 1.8 0.7 -4.8 43.9
Slovakia 2.5 5.3 5.7 0.9 7.3 4.5 6.3 7.9 7.0 -0.2 0.8 -1.9 0.4 -1.2 1.9 2.8 3.9 4.6 4.1 2.7 -1.0 58.8
Slovenia -0.1 2.9 2.4 3.5 2.5 2.1 1.3 6.5 2.9 2.1 1.0 0.8 -2.2 -3.9 1.6 2.0 4.4 1.9 3.6 4.8 -9.7 49.2
EU27_2020 2.9 1.9 1.0 1.4 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.2 0.6 -1.1 0.9 0.3 -0.9 -0.5 1.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 1.8 1.5 -7.3 51.9
United Kingdom 4.4 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.2 2.5 1.6 2.3 -0.4 -2.7 1.2 -0.1 1.7 2.6 2.3 3.0 3.4 1.1 1.4 0.9 .. ..
Norway 4.2 2.1 3.1 3.2 5.4 4.4 5.0 5.3 1.7 0.0 3.8 2.4 3.5 2.8 2.1 2.7 1.1 2.2 1.6 1.4 -6.9 43.8
Russia 7.1 9.3 8.3 7.5 11.9 11.7 12.0 14.2 10.4 -5.1 5.5 6.7 7.9 5.2 -0.2 -7.6 -1.4 3.2 2.9 2.4 .. 49.5
Switzerland 2.3 2.4 0.4 0.5 1.9 1.3 1.5 2.1 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.4 2.2 2.3 1.0 2.5 1.6 1.2 0.8 1.4 -4.4 51.0
Serbia 5.1 1.6 9.2 2.7 12.7 2.4 10.5 7.7 4.5 -3.3 -0.6 1.4 -1.7 -1.7 -0.1 -0.6 1.9 2.2 3.1 3.6 -2.5 67.1
Turkey 4.5 -6.7 4.0 8.1 9.6 6.3 3.7 5.3 0.3 -3.7 10.8 12.2 3.1 7.5 3.1 5.3 3.8 5.9 0.5 1.6 3.2 56.7
Israel 8.4 3.9 1.5 0.2 5.3 3.4 5.0 7.7 1.7 1.2 4.8 3.9 2.9 3.6 4.1 4.1 6.4 3.3 3.7 3.8 -9.5 49.8
Japan 1.6 1.9 1.2 0.7 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.9 -1.0 -0.7 2.4 -0.4 2.0 2.4 -0.9 -0.2 -0.3 1.3 0.0
-0.3a
..
55.2b
China 10.8 6.9 9.3 6.4 7.7 10.2 8.4 11.8 8.1 10.0 9.3 12.1 8.7 7.2 7.2 8.3 8.5 7.3 8.1 6.4 ..
38.9c
Republic of Korea 9.3 5.8 9.0 -0.4 0.4 4.7 4.9 5.3 1.6 0.2 4.4 2.9 1.7 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.6 2.8 3.2 1.7 ..
48.5c
South Africa 4.1 3.5 3.2 2.8 6.2 6.1 8.8 6.5 1.2 -2.6 3.9 5.1 3.7 2.0 0.8 1.9 0.6 2.1 1.8 1.0 .. 59.9
United States 5.1 2.5 2.6 3.2 3.8 3.6 3.1 2.2 -0.2 -1.3 1.7 1.9 1.5 1.5 3.0 3.8 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.4 ..
67.9c
Canada 4.1 2.4 4.0 2.7 3.1 3.9 4.2 4.4 3.0 0.1 3.6 2.3 1.9 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.1 3.7 2.5 1.7 -6.1 57.4
Mexico 7.1 2.5 1.7 2.2 4.8 2.8 4.1 2.5 0.7 -6.3 3.6 3.4 2.3 1.8 2.1 2.7 3.7 3.2 2.5 0.6 ..
64.9c
Australia 3.2 3.1 4.0 5.0 4.5 3.2 5.4 4.9 0.6 3.3 4.0 3.0 1.8 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.3 2.8 1.8 -3.0 ..
53.7c
New Zealand 1.4 2.7 5.0 6.2 5.4 4.6 2.9 3.8 -0.8 1.5 2.2 3.2 2.3 3.9 3.3 4.2 6.5 5.0 4.4 2.8 ..
57.7c

Footnotes

*
Including non-profit institutions serving households. Source: Eurostat (Luxemburg); UN database. Download date: July 1 2021.
a
Estimated figure.
b
2019. Estimated figure.
c
2019.
.