Country, group of countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Austria 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.3 -0.1 0.2 0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.2 -0.9
Belgium 1.1 1.2 0.7 0.7 1.5 1.6 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.2 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.8 -1.1
Bulgaria -5.1 -5.5 -5.9 -5.7 -5.2 -5.5 -5.2 -5.0 -4.4 -3.6 -4.7 -5.1 -5.5 -5.2 -5.7 -6.2 -6.0 -6.5 -6.6 -6.7 -9.5
Cyprus 4.5 4.8 3.8 4.0 4.2 3.8 4.8 4.2 5.1 5.5 5.7 4.8 5.2 4.9 4.5 3.9 4.7 3.8 4.1 3.8 3.9
Czechia -1.8 -1.7 -1.5 -1.7 -0.9 -0.6 0.1 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 -0.2 0.4 0.0 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.0 -1.8
Denmark 1.7 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.1
Estonia -3.8 -4.2 -3.9 -3.7 -2.7 -2.2 -1.8 -1.2 -0.5 -0.2 0.0 -0.4 -1.1 -1.3 -1.5 -1.0 -1.0 -1.3 -1.0 -1.0 -2.0
Finland 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.8 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.4 1.2 0.9 0.5 -0.2 -0.6 -1.3 -1.5 -1.6
France 4.4 4.3 4.0 3.7 4.5 4.3 4.8 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.1 2.9 2.4 2.2 2.1 1.0
Greece -0.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.9 0.9 0.5 -0.4 -1.5 -1.6 -2.0 -2.7 -2.4 -3.3 -3.2 -3.8
-4.3a
Netherlands 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.1 1.8 2.1 1.4 1.4 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.0
Croatia -1.5 -2.0 -2.4 -3.0 -2.2 -2.2 -2.1 -2.4 -1.9 -1.8 -2.0 -2.3 -2.3 -2.5 -2.7 -4.0 -3.4 -4.1 -3.9 -3.9 -5.2
Ireland 6.1 7.1 7.8 8.1 8.2 8.0 8.6 9.8 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.0 9.2 8.5 8.2 7.5 7.0 6.6
6.1a
5.7a
4.9
Poland 0.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.3 0.0 -0.5 0.0 -0.7 -0.2 0.0 -0.7 -0.9 -3.2
Latvia -5.0 -5.7 -5.4 -4.9 -5.1 -4.9 -4.6 -4.1 -3.0 -3.7 -4.9 -4.7 -4.5 -4.0 -3.4 -3.3 -3.4 -4.1 -4.9 -4.7 -5.9
Lithuania -1.4 -2.7 -3.3 -3.2 -3.4 -4.3 -4.7 -4.8 -3.8 -3.1 -3.7 -3.6 -3.5 -3.9 -3.4 -3.5 -3.7 -4.0 -4.1 -3.9 -6.6
Luxembourg 4.5 3.9 3.6 2.8 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.4 4.1 4.0 4.2 3.5 4.0 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.1 2.9
Hungary -3.7 -3.4 -3.5 -4.1 -3.7 -3.8 -3.2 -3.5 -3.1 -3.4 -4.0 -4.1 -3.9 -3.8 -3.3 -4.0 -3.2 -3.8 -3.9 -3.8 -4.9
Malta 3.7 2.7 2.3 2.3 2.2 1.8 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.0 2.5 1.6 1.6 1.3 0.6
Germany -0.9 -1.1 -1.5 -1.8 -1.4 -1.8 -1.8 -1.7 -2.0 -2.3 -2.2 -2.4 -2.4 -2.6 -1.9 -2.3 -1.4 -1.8 -2.0 -1.9 -2.6
Italy -0.2 -0.2 -0.3 -0.7 0.3 -0.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.1 -0.4 -0.4 -0.8 -1.3 -1.4 -1.6 -2.7 -2.3 -3.2 -3.2 -3.6 -5.8
Portugal 1.4 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.5 -0.4 -0.6 -1.7 -2.3 -2.2 -2.2 -2.3 -2.3 -2.5 -2.5 -3.8
Romania -0.9 -1.8 -2.7 -2.5 -2.0 -1.9 -1.8 -1.8 -1.5 -1.7 -2.3 -2.7 -2.7 -2.9 -2.8 -3.1 -2.7 -2.6 -3.1
-3.1a
-6.2a
Spain 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.9 1.8 2.5 2.4 2.9 2.4 2.3 1.8 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.0 0.0 -0.7 -1.2 -1.2 -3.2
Sweden -0.3 -0.3 0.1 0.7 1.2 1.1 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.7 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.7 2.4 2.7 2.3 2.3 2.5 1.4
Slovakia 0.5 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.8 1.5 1.3 1.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.3 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.7 -0.4
Slovenia -0.2 -0.5 -0.6 -1.1 -0.3 -0.3 0.4 0.6 1.7 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.3 0.9 1.1 0.4 0.3 -0.1 -0.4 -0.6 -2.5
EU27_2020 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.3 -0.1 -0.3 0.0 -0.7 -0.3 -0.7
-1.0a
-1.1a
-2.5a
United Kingdom 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.4 2.2 2.3 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.2 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.3 1.8 1.6 ..
Iceland 8.8 8.3 7.7 8.0 8.3 8.2 8.3 8.4 9.0 9.5 9.1 7.9 8.0 6.7 7.1 5.9 5.1 5.3 5.6 6.0 6.0
North Macedonia 5.9 5.0 4.8 4.4 2.7 2.0 1.9 1.5 1.9 2.3 2.5 1.6 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.3 1.2 0.7 0.8 -0.3 -3.2
Montenegro 6.2 5.6 4.9 4.3 3.5 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.1 4.5 2.9 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.4 1.7 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.0 -0.3
Norway 3.4 2.8 2.4 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.9 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.3
Russia -7.3 -7.3 -7.7 -7.3 -6.9 -7.6 -6.0 -3.8 -3.0 -2.4 -2.1 -1.1 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 -1.6 -2.0 -2.5 -2.9 -3.5 ..
Switzerland 2.2 1.5 1.5 1.2 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.6 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.1
Serbia -4.0 -2.7 -3.3 -3.3 -3.5 -4.6 -4.3 -4.7 -4.6 -4.6 -4.8 -5.2 -4.9 -4.8 -4.9 -5.4 -5.1 -5.5 -5.4 -5.3 -8.0
Turkey 14.0 13.4 12.1 11.7 12.0 12.3 12.4 12.8 12.7 12.1 11.8 11.4 11.7 12.0 12.3 11.8 11.2 10.8 10.1 9.1 ..
India 17.7 17.4 17.1 16.7 16.4 16.0 15.6 15.2 14.7 14.2 13.6 13.1 12.6 12.2 11.8 11.4 11.1 10.9 10.6 10.4 ..
Israel 15.7 15.4 15.4 15.9 15.7 15.2 15.5 15.5 16.1 16.3 16.6 16.1 16.3 16.1 16.3 16.0 16.0 15.9 15.8 15.0 ..
Japan 1.7 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.6 -0.1 0.1 -0.1 -0.4 -0.6 -1.0 -1.6 -1.8 -1.9 -2.1 -2.3 -2.7 -3.2 -3.6 -4.1 ..
China 7.6 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.8 4.8 5.0 4.9 5.2 5.0 5.9 5.3 3.8 3.4 ..
Republic of Korea 8.3 6.6 5.2 5.1 4.7 3.9 4.2 5.1 4.4 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.3 3.3 3.3 3.2 2.4 1.4 0.6 0.2 ..
Egypt 19.4 19.1 18.8 18.6 18.5 18.5 18.7 19.1 19.6 20.3 21.0 21.7 22.2 22.4 22.4 22.2 21.8 21.2 20.6 19.9 ..
Brazil 13.9 13.4 12.8 12.3 11.7 11.2 10.7 10.3 9.9 9.6 9.3 9.0 8.8 8.6 8.4 8.2 8.0 7.7 7.5 7.2 ..
United States 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.7 6.2 6.3 5.9 5.6 5.0 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.3 4.0 3.7 3.2 2.9 2.7 ..
Canada 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.3 ..
Mexico 19.1 18.7 18.3 17.9 17.4 16.9 16.5 16.0 15.6 15.2 14.8 14.4 14.0 13.6 13.2 12.8 12.4 12.0 11.6 11.2 ..
Australia 6.3 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.8 6.4 6.5 7.4 7.3 7.4 7.2 7.0 7.1 6.9 6.6 6.3 6.3 6.1 6.3 5.4 ..
New Zealand 7.8 7.2 6.6 7.0 7.3 7.4 7.4 8.4 8.3 7.8 8.2 7.1 7.1 6.6 5.8 6.4 6.0 5.5 5.1 5.1 ..

Footnotes

*
Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg); World Development Indicators (The World Bank, Washington D.C.). Download date: October 1, 2021.
a
Estimated figure.
.