Countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Austria 9.2 3.3 0.8 1.9 6.2 4.3 7.7 5.8 1.3 -11.3 6.7 6.6 0.2 0.5 0.9 2.1 2.0 5.9 4.9 0.1
Belgium .. 4.2 0.7 1.5 6.3 3.8 6.3 7.7 3.7 -11.0 9.1 4.8 -1.8 0.0 1.3 -1.2 4.5 2.9 1.1 4.9
Bulgaria .. 1.9 4.8 13.2 12.5 7.0 6.3 9.4 0.7 -18.3 2.0 5.8 -0.4 -0.1 2.0 2.7 2.8 3.8 0.3 0.7
Cyprus .. 5.2 2.1 0.0 1.1 0.8 0.3 4.9 4.5 -9.0 -2.1 -7.7 -10.0 -13.0 -0.5 5.0 9.1 8.1 6.9 4.0
Czechia .. 6.9 1.8 3.7 9.3 3.1 7.8 10.0 -2.4 -12.9 8.5 5.6 -0.9 0.1 5.2 4.5 3.0 6.8 3.1 -0.4
Denmark .. 2.6 1.6 -0.2 -2.0 3.1 3.6 -3.3 -2.7 -14.1 1.9 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 3.7 2.3 2.4 2.7
Estonia .. 9.0 8.5 11.5 9.3 11.1 10.0 6.5 -5.0 -23.7 22.8 19.8 1.2 4.5 4.3 -0.2 3.0 4.2 4.8 0.1
Finland 8.5 -0.1 1.5 0.0 5.0 -0.6 10.0 4.5 1.0 -17.8 5.6 2.0 -2.3 -3.1 -1.8 -0.9 4.1 3.4 3.3 2.0
France 4.7 1.2 -1.1 -0.9 1.8 0.4 1.2 1.2 -2.8 -12.6 4.3 2.8 -2.4 -0.6 -1.1 1.4 0.5 2.4 0.3 0.5
Greece .. -3.4 0.2 0.5 0.7 -1.6 0.8 2.3 -4.2 -9.7 -6.1 -5.8 -2.1 -3.3 -2.0 1.0 2.6 4.2 1.8 -0.7
Netherlands .. 1.2 1.0 -1.5 4.7 0.5 2.0 4.3 0.6 -7.7 7.7 -0.7 -0.6 0.6 -2.8 -3.5 1.3 1.4 0.6 -0.9
Croatia 1.5 6.1 5.2 3.2 2.5 5.0 4.4 4.9 0.8 -9.1 -1.4 -1.2 -5.4 -1.7 1.1 2.6 5.0 2.0 -1.1 0.6
Ireland 14.6 10.9 8.1 5.8 1.3 4.0 2.9 5.2 -2.1 -4.4 8.2 -0.5 -1.4 -2.3 21.1 35.9 1.8 -2.3 -4.9 2.9
Poland .. 0.6 1.7 8.2 12.4 4.9 12.4 9.3 2.2 -4.0 11.1 7.2 1.1 2.7 3.1 4.8 2.8 6.9 5.7 4.4
Latvia .. 10.5 7.2 8.0 6.6 7.3 6.5 1.3 -3.1 -18.0 14.3 8.9 6.3 -0.4 -0.9 3.4 4.7 8.7 2.0 0.8
Lithuania -0.4 12.7 5.5 14.9 10.6 7.8 5.6 2.9 3.4 -14.1 6.1 6.8 3.9 3.1 0.1 4.2 2.7 6.8 5.1 3.5
Luxembourg .. 4.7 4.9 5.1 4.7 2.7 2.5 -0.3 -5.1 -16.1 8.7 1.8 -5.0 -3.1 4.4 1.1 -0.3 3.8 -1.2 -3.0
Hungary .. 3.9 3.3 6.4 7.0 7.0 10.6 8.2 -0.8 -17.8 10.6 5.5 -1.3 1.4 7.2 7.1 0.6 5.5 3.8 5.6
Malta .. -6.7 0.4 4.7 -0.7 -5.5 7.4 7.2 -4.4 -14.2 8.7 -0.1 5.4 -5.2 -5.7 -0.2 -7.3 8.7 1.3 1.1
Germany 5.6 0.2 -1.1 0.6 3.0 3.4 5.7 6.0 0.0 -16.4 11.1 7.1 -0.3 0.1 1.3 0.9 1.1 3.4 1.0 -4.3
Italy 4.2 -1.2 -1.3 -0.6 -0.2 -0.7 3.6 1.7 -3.4 -18.8 6.8 1.2 -6.4 -3.0 -0.7 1.1 1.9 3.6 0.7 -1.0
Portugal .. 1.7 0.4 -1.1 -4.2 5.4 -0.7 -1.5 -5.5 -10.6 1.4 -1.3 -6.0 0.8 1.7 2.0 2.4 3.6 0.1 -2.2
Romania .. 4.3 0.2 -0.9 1.6 -0.9 9.8 10.1 2.8 -5.6 4.9 7.9 3.0 7.7 6.3 2.6 3.1 8.6 4.3 -3.2
Spain 4.4 -1.4 0.0 1.3 1.6 0.9 3.9 1.8 -7.6 -15.8 0.8 -1.7 -6.9 -1.8 1.4 3.4 1.7 3.2 0.4 0.6
Sweden .. -0.5 0.1 1.7 4.5 2.2 3.6 4.0 -3.0 -17.8 8.6 2.6 -1.2 -4.6 -1.7 3.2 1.3 4.8 2.6 2.7
Slovakia .. 3.4 7.1 15.4 3.6 -0.7 15.8 16.7 15.8 -12.9 12.3 5.7 2.9 1.6 3.0 6.7 4.6 3.3 4.3 0.5
Slovenia 6.7 3.4 2.1 0.8 3.7 4.7 6.3 7.4 1.4 -17.5 6.7 2.1 -0.2 -1.3 1.7 4.9 7.8 8.0 5.4 2.8
EU27_2020
5.3a
0.8 -0.1 0.6 2.6 2.0 4.4 4.0 -1.6 -14.4 7.2 3.6 -2.0 -0.6 1.2 2.7 1.7 3.3 1.2 -0.8
United Kingdom 1.9 -1.6 -1.3 -0.7 0.4 -0.1 0.5 0.1 -2.8 -8.5 3.6 0.1 -2.7 -0.8 1.3 0.4 1.6 2.3 0.8 -1.1
EU28
4.6a
0.4 -0.3 0.4 2.3 1.6 3.8 3.5 -1.8 -13.7 6.7 3.1 -2.1 -0.7 1.3 2.5 1.7 3.3 1.0 -0.8
Euro area–19
5.4a
0.4 -0.3 0.3 2.2 1.6 4.1 3.8 -1.8 -14.8 7.2 3.4 -2.4 -0.8 1.0 2.6 1.6 3.0 0.7 -1.3
North Macedonia .. -3.1 -5.2 4.7 -2.2 7.1 5.8 3.9 5.1 -8.6 -4.9 7.0 -2.8 3.3 4.7 4.9 3.4 0.2 5.4 3.7
Norway 3.1 -0.4 -0.2 -1.8 -1.2 -0.3 -2.1 -1.2 0.2 -3.5 -5.3 -4.5 2.7 -5.0 3.5 0.6 -1.6 2.1 1.2 -4.9
Russia 8.7 2.9 3.2 9.5 8.0 5.2 6.4 6.9 0.7 -10.7 7.2 5.1 3.4 1.7 2.5 5.3 1.9 3.7 3.5 3.3
Switzerland 8.4 -0.7 -5.1 0.4 4.0 0.2 7.4 9.2 0.1 -6.7 7.0 1.9 1.3 1.1 1.1 -1.7 0.0 4.9 5.4 4.4
Serbia .. 0.5 1.6 -3.0 6.1 1.1 4.4 4.0 1.1 -12.5 1.1 2.5 -2.6 6.1 -7.4 7.3 4.9 4.2 1.4 0.4
Turkey 6.3 -8.4 9.0 8.9 9.2 14.4 7.4 8.4 -0.9 -10.8 13.7 14.8 4.1 7.2 5.7 5.8 3.4 9.0 1.3 -0.5
India 6.0 2.7 4.9 6.6 10.8 5.9 10.9 15.6 7.7 0.2 9.7 4.8 -0.2 1.6 4.5 2.5 5.2 3.5 5.2 0.7
Israel 10.0 -5.0 -1.9 -0.3 6.9 5.1 9.1 5.5 6.9 -5.8 8.0 2.2 4.7 -1.0 0.6 2.4 -0.3 1.8 2.5 3.9
Japan 4.9 -6.1 -1.2 3.9 4.7 1.6 4.1 2.9 -3.2 -20.8 15.0 -2.8 0.1 -0.6 1.8 -1.2 0.2 2.6 1.0 -2.6
Republic of Korea 16.9 0.6 8.0 5.5 10.4 6.3 8.4 6.9 3.4 -0.1 16.3 6.0 1.4 0.7 0.2 -0.3 2.2 2.5 1.5 0.0
Brazil 6.6 1.6 2.8 0.3 8.3 2.8 2.7 5.9 3.1 -7.1 10.2 0.4 -2.3 2.1 -3.0 -8.2 -6.4 2.5 1.0 -1.1
United States 3.9 -3.1 0.4 1.3 2.7 3.3 2.3 2.5 -3.5 -11.5 5.5 3.1 3.0 2.0 3.1 -1.0 -2.0 2.3 3.9 0.8
Canada 7.0 -3.1 1.9 0.1 2.2 2.3 -0.2 -1.4 -3.3 -10.8 6.0 4.8 -0.1 1.7 4.9 -0.4 0.1 4.8 4.4 0.0
Mexicob 3.8 -2.5 -0.9 1.6 3.9 2.6 4.4 1.4 -0.6 -6.1 4.6 3.5 2.8 -0.4 2.7 1.0 -0.1
-0.5a
.. ..
Australia 5.5 1.3 2.7 -0.1 0.8 1.9 1.8 3.6 3.0 -0.9 4.3 0.9 3.5 2.6 5.0 2.1 2.2 1.5 3.9 2.5
New Zealand 3.5 -0.2 5.7 3.3 3.6 0.3 -1.0 4.3 -1.8 -6.0 3.7 -2.8 0.6 0.5 3.1 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.9

Footnotes

*
Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg); Main Economic Indicators database (OECD, Paris).
a
Eurostat estimate.
b
Excluding construction.
.