Countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Austria 4.6 -1.9 3.4 -0.1 -5.3 -1.8 10.8 0.1 6.4 -6.6 4.4 8.4 0.1 -7.0 0.6 -9.3 2.6 4.5 4.0 -10.7
Belgium .. 2.9 18.6 -2.8 0.3 13.9 7.6 5.6 5.5 -20.4 12.5 3.6 -6.1 -4.9 -0.8 20.2 1.9 2.6 -0.4 -3.8
Bulgaria .. -9.2 -0.4 6.2 17.4 -1.0 0.8 -8.0 -5.5 -14.9 1.3 8.2 -2.3 -6.3 -1.0 0.4 2.6 2.8 -5.9 5.1
Cyprus .. -3.9 11.4 4.7 3.1 4.4 -0.9 7.7 8.7 -18.5 9.3 -7.6 -33.9 -34.7 -9.8 1.0 34.7 18.0 11.7 2.4
Czechia .. 1.6 -3.4 1.3 -1.0 -4.7 -0.1 -2.3 -3.4 -6.0 -0.5 1.3 -4.0 -10.5 -2.5 -2.5 -6.8 -1.8 -0.8 -6.4
Denmark .. -1.1 5.9 -1.8 5.2 4.8 -6.9 -9.7 -3.3 -8.8 -4.7 -7.9 -6.2 -16.9 -10.5 -2.4 -4.7 -3.3 -13.6 -10.8
Estonia .. 3.3 15.5 5.5 -8.9 11.1 9.2 10.6 -7.9 -10.4 13.2 8.5 -4.2 10.9 -3.8 -5.0 -10.9 29.3 5.8 -21.1
Finland -20.2 27.2 17.0 -4.5 -21.6 21.6 27.8 -22.0 2.2 -11.5 3.8 6.4 -7.4 4.4 -2.0 -19.2 18.6 6.6 15.4 -10.6
France 5.1 -0.5 -3.9 -1.0 -0.4 -1.4 3.3 2.0 -2.9 -12.8 -1.2 0.9 -4.7 -2.7 -4.2 3.4 -0.3 2.0 3.1 0.1
Greece .. 2.0 10.3 -3.7 -0.3 -7.4 -2.9 -0.3 -4.5 -11.8 -6.5 -2.0 -0.9 -11.5 -0.3 -6.5 -5.7 9.8 0.1 -6.6
Netherlands .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 11.6 -8.1 -0.6 6.8 -16.5 -19.5 .. .. .. -13.4
Croatia 1.8 2.1 17.0 2.3 -3.2 -3.0 10.3 2.9 -1.8 -10.7 -9.2 -4.9 -15.4 -2.7 -6.4 4.9 -1.8 -2.5 -9.9 -5.9
Ireland 23.1 2.0 -3.1 24.0 -0.4 1.6 1.8 -3.0 -6.5 -12.9 -6.7 -15.1 -10.7 43.7 4.7 -21.1 .. .. .. ..
Poland .. -5.3 -3.2 -1.6 2.9 -2.6 0.8 -3.2 0.6 -12.9 1.7 1.9 -3.0 2.8 -5.3 0.9 -5.3 -6.3 0.5 0.6
Latvia .. 1.5 10.1 5.9 10.3 18.6 9.8 12.9 -1.9 -18.7 13.0 8.0 0.8 3.6 3.0 6.2 0.0 18.3 4.3 -5.0
Lithuania 8.1 28.7 -2.5 9.8 -6.7 -8.8 1.4 2.2 -7.0 -38.3 11.6 11.3 -3.3 14.0 8.3 -14.1 6.1 28.0 -8.8 1.3
Luxembourg .. 0.6 -9.5 -10.8 0.1 -2.6 -20.4 2.2 -1.5 -11.3 -24.2 9.6 0.5 -8.5 0.9 2.9 -13.9 -19.0 -6.0 -4.1
Hungary .. 15.0 -9.4 -1.7 8.1 -4.0 16.4 -17.2 35.8 -11.1 -22.4 10.0 9.0 -7.3 -0.3 -14.2 -18.6 24.6 55.0 19.7
Malta .. 8.7 5.9 19.0 -14.1 10.9 -14.3 28.1 -39.9 -3.5 -23.4 -10.0 29.5 6.1 -21.9 -2.7 11.8 -7.0 23.6 8.3
Germany -7.2 -6.7 -1.6 -0.8 -3.2 -1.6 -4.1 30.1 -11.6 -15.6 -8.2 0.3 -5.8 -11.4 -1.4 -5.3 -5.8 1.0 -6.5 -13.4
Italy -8.5 -8.0 16.8 2.1 -2.5 8.0 -1.6 -6.6 -7.9 -12.3 -1.6 2.3 1.1 -8.6 -2.2 -4.5 -8.7 -0.4 -0.9 -4.7
Portugal .. 4.9 -4.9 -4.4 10.4 14.6 -9.3 6.7 0.2 -18.6 -5.9 -6.2 -23.9 -17.6 -10.6 1.0 -0.7 -3.8 15.3 4.9
Romania .. 3.7 -7.1 -0.3 0.6 -1.9 2.5 -1.6 0.3 -12.2 -7.0 3.4 10.3 1.9 1.1 -12.6 -11.4 9.9 -0.2 -2.8
Spain 4.1 -0.2 -4.1 -0.2 -4.9 -3.4 3.2 0.2 -14.0 -24.0 4.3 -18.4 -23.6 -14.4 -0.3 -8.2 -8.0 5.2 -6.1 1.3
Sweden .. -1.9 1.7 -0.7 8.6 5.2 1.4 6.7 0.3 -15.7 28.1 4.2 2.8 -0.6 0.6 -2.1 10.4 4.1 -0.2 0.8
Slovakia .. -6.4 9.5 -8.4 7.3 -14.4 -3.3 15.3 -14.4 4.4 -0.3 0.2 -3.0 -1.1 2.1 2.0 -3.7 -5.8 -9.7 5.3
Slovenia -4.0 -6.9 7.2 4.7 -12.5 4.0 7.8 5.5 4.1 -3.0 13.8 -7.2 -6.0 -0.2 -3.6 -1.0 2.9 2.9 -0.3 -4.6
EU27_2020 .. -0.7 1.7 -2.4 3.4 -3.6 -1.5 1.6 -2.3 -12.2 1.3 -2.6 -3.7 -3.5 -6.4 -8.3 -5.5 -2.4 -4.3 -5.9
United Kingdom -3.5 -5.1 -0.6 -5.3 -7.4 -7.9 -5.7 -3.2 -5.9 -9.3 7.0 -13.6 -12.1 -5.5 -0.7 2.2 -2.3 0.7 5.3 -1.5
EU28
-3.0a
-2.6 0.8 -3.5 -0.9 -5.1 -2.9 -0.1 -3.5 -11.3 1.9 -6.3 -6.2 -4.0 -4.7 -4.2 -4.3 -1.3 -1.0 -3.6
Euro area–19
-2.4a
0.4 2.3 -3.2 3.1 -6.2 -1.5 6.1 -3.1 -12.9 2.5 -3.7 -4.0 -2.5 -7.2 -12.6 -6.6 -2.6 -5.3 -8.5
North Macedonia .. -1.8 -24.5 -39.1 -5.0 40.5 11.2 9.9 9.4 -12.4 -3.8 2.6 1.7 3.4 -1.9 -1.4 -7.8 -1.7 -1.4 -1.9
Norway 5.6 3.1 -1.7 -1.1 -1.2 -3.2 -4.5 -4.6 -0.7 -3.0 -8.4 -8.1 0.0 -3.9 1.6 2.9 -0.6 -0.2 -3.4 -6.6
Russia 5.0 6.0 6.7 8.8 6.7 1.4 2.8 3.3 0.4 -2.8 3.8 1.8 1.0 1.1 1.4 0.3 .. .. .. 0.3
Switzerland 0.7 0.6 -1.5 -0.7 4.1 -5.1 8.1 1.6 -7.6 4.9 11.6 -0.3 -3.2 1.2 -2.3 -4.9 .. .. .. -1.7
Serbia .. -12.3 1.5 0.5 0.3 4.1 4.3 0.1 4.7 -3.3 3.9 9.8 -0.4 5.8 -15.8 12.1 2.7 2.8 -4.8 1.1
Turkey -2.6 -8.3 -8.3 -3.4 3.9 10.0 9.8 11.8 6.7 0.6 -2.5 14.5 1.7 0.7 -2.9 1.5 -0.5 11.1 3.2 1.5
India 2.8 1.2 5.8 5.3 4.3 1.0 5.4 5.1 2.5 7.9 5.3 -2.0 -2.3 -0.7 1.5 2.3 .. .. .. 2.3
Israel -2.4 2.0 7.8 -3.0 -2.8 2.1 -10.9 27.8 15.8 -32.4 85.6 -2.9 -8.4 32.2 10.5 -0.2 .. .. .. -0.2
Japan -0.3 -0.4 -6.0 2.0 0.0 3.0 2.6 3.9 -3.3 -9.2 -3.9 0.0 1.0 -4.4 -2.3 -4.2 .. .. .. -4.2
Republic of Korea -1.4 -0.2 4.3 -1.0 -3.5 -7.8 -4.2 -4.5 -10.0 6.7 -7.2 4.5 -4.5 4.0 -7.9 0.5 .. .. .. 0.5
South Africa -1.4 1.4 0.9 3.9 3.8 1.2 -1.3 -0.9 -5.7 -6.7 4.9 -0.9 -3.2 3.6 -1.4 3.2 .. .. .. 3.2
Brazil 11.9 3.4 18.9 4.7 4.4 10.1 7.4 6.0 3.9 -8.9 13.5 2.2 -0.5 -3.6 6.8 3.6 .. .. .. 3.6
United States 2.5 0.6 -4.6 0.2 -0.9 -1.5 3.0 0.5 1.2 -5.3 5.2 5.6 7.4 6.5 11.0 -1.7 .. .. .. -1.7
Canada 3.1 0.1 2.4 2.8 1.6 0.9 2.7 1.0 -1.9 -10.3 6.2 7.2 -2.1 3.3 6.0 -2.3 .. .. .. -2.3
Mexico 3.8 1.4 0.5 3.6 1.3 -0.3 -0.8 -1.5 -3.7 -4.1 0.9 -0.4 0.9 -0.1 -1.5 -5.8 .. .. .. -5.8
Australia 7.2 6.7 0.0 0.0 -3.0 5.3 1.9 8.5 2.7 3.1 7.9 2.2 7.5 8.8 9.5 6.5 .. .. .. 6.5

Footnotes

*
Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg); Monthly Bulletin of Statistics database (UN, New York).
a
Estimated data.
.