Country, group of countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Austria 4.8 4.8 4.1 4.5 4.5 4.2 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.1
Belgium 4.8 4.5 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.7 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.6 3.4 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.6 3.8 3.7 3.3
Bulgaria 13.3 14.4 13.3 12.3 11.6 10.4 9.7 9.2 8.6 9.0 9.4 8.5 7.8 7.3 7.6 6.6 6.5 6.4 5.8 5.6 5.1
Cyprus 5.6 4.9 4.7 4.1 3.5 4.6 3.1 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.5 1.6 2.1 2.7 2.6 1.3 2.4 2.6 2.1
Czechia 4.1 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.5 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.3
Denmark 5.3 4.9 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 3.5 4.0 4.0 3.1 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5 4.0 3.7 3.1 3.8 3.7 3.0 3.2
Estonia 8.4 8.8 5.7 7.0 6.4 5.4 4.4 5.0 5.0 3.6 3.3 2.5 3.6 2.1 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.3 1.6 1.6 1.4
Finland 3.8 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.4 1.8 2.2 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 1.8
France 4.5 4.6 4.2 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.6
Greece 5.9 5.1 5.1 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.5 2.7 3.1 3.8 3.4 2.9 3.7 3.7 4.0 4.2 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.2
Netherlands 5.1 5.4 5.0 4.8 4.4 4.9 4.4 4.1 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.6 3.8
Croatia 7.4 7.7 7.0 6.3 6.1 5.7 5.2 5.6 4.5 5.3 4.4 4.7 3.6 4.1 5.0 4.1 4.3 4.0 4.2 4.0 4.0
Ireland 6.2 5.7 5.0 5.3 4.6 3.8 3.9 3.2 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.0
Poland 8.1 7.7 7.5 7.0 6.8 6.4 6.0 6.0 5.6 5.6 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.6
Latvia 10.3 11.0 9.8 9.4 9.3 7.7 7.4 8.5 6.6 7.6 5.6 6.6 6.3 4.4 3.8 4.1 3.7 4.1 3.2 3.4 3.5
Lithuania 8.6 8.0 8.1 6.9 8.1 7.1 7.2 6.3 5.5 5.6 5.0 4.8 3.9 3.7 3.9 4.2 4.5 3.0 3.4 3.3 2.8
Luxembourg 5.1 5.9 5.1 4.9 3.9 2.6 2.5 1.8 1.8 2.5 3.4 4.3 2.5 3.9 2.8 2.8 3.8 3.2 4.3 4.7 4.5
Hungary 9.2 8.1 7.2 7.3 6.6 6.2 5.7 5.9 5.6 5.1 5.3 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.4
Malta 5.2 3.8 5.4 5.7 5.7 5.4 3.7 6.6 8.5 5.5 5.6 6.5 5.3 6.7 5.0 5.8 7.4 6.7 5.6 6.7 3.9
Germany 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1
Italy 4.3 4.4 4.1 3.8 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8 2.4 2.4
Portugal 5.5 5.0 5.0 4.1 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.6 2.5 3.1 3.4 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.2 2.7 3.3 2.8 2.4
Romania 18.6 18.4 17.3 16.7 16.8 15.0 13.9 12.0 11.0 10.1 9.8 9.4 9.0 8.9 8.2 7.5 6.8 6.5 6.0 5.8 5.6
Spain 4.4 4.0 4.1 3.9 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6
Sweden 3.4 3.7 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.4 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.6 2.7 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.0 2.1 2.4
Slovakia 8.6 6.2 7.6 7.9 6.8 7.2 6.6 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.7 4.9 5.8 5.5 5.8 5.1 5.4 4.5 5.0 5.1 5.1
Slovenia 4.9 4.2 3.8 4.0 3.7 4.1 3.4 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.9 1.6 2.9 1.8 1.6 2.0 2.1 1.7 2.1 2.2
EU27_2020 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.1 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3
United Kingdom 5.6 5.5 5.2 5.3 5.0 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9 .. ..
Iceland 3.0 2.7 2.2 2.4 2.8 2.3 1.4 2.0 2.5 1.8 2.2 0.9 1.1 1.8 2.1 2.2 0.7 2.7 1.7 1.1 2.9
North Macedonia 11.8 11.9 10.2 11.3 13.2 12.8 11.5 10.3 9.7 11.7 7.6 7.6 9.8 10.2 9.9 8.6 11.9 9.2 5.7 5.6 5.7
Montenegro 11.1 14.6 10.8 11.0 7.8 8.4 11.0 7.4 7.5 5.7 6.7 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.9 2.2 3.4 1.3 1.7 2.4 2.8
Norway 3.8 3.9 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.7 3.1 2.8 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.1 1.7
Russia 15.5 14.7 13.8 12.9 12.0 11.1 10.3 9.6 9.0 8.6 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.2 6.6 6.1 5.5 5.1 4.7 4.4
Switzerland 4.9 5.0 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.4 3.9 4.0 4.3 3.8 3.8 3.6 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.6
Serbia 10.6 10.2 10.1 9.0 8.1 8.0 7.4 7.1 6.7 7.0 6.7 6.3 6.2 6.3 5.7 5.3 5.4 4.7 4.9 4.8 5.0
Turkey 28.4 28.6 29.6 29.1 27.4 25.8 24.5 16.5 15.7 13.7 12.0 11.7 11.6 10.8 11.1 10.7 10.0 9.2 9.3 9.1 ..
India 66.7 64.4 62.1 60.0 57.8 55.7 53.6 51.5 49.4 47.2 45.1 43.0 40.9 38.8 36.9 34.9 33.1 31.4 29.8 28.3 27.0
Israel 5.6 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9
Japan 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
China 29.9 27.8 25.6 23.4 21.4 19.4 17.7 16.2 14.8 13.6 12.5 11.5 10.6 9.8 9.0 8.3 7.6 7.0 6.4 5.9 5.5
Republic of Korea 6.5 6.1 5.8 5.5 5.1 4.8 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6
South Africa 46.3 46.6 46.7 47.2 48.3 48.2 47.5 45.0 41.2 36.5 32.5 30.5 29.8 29.2 29.0 28.5 28.2 28.2 27.8 27.5 25.8
Egypt 37.1 35.2 33.5 32.0 30.6 29.3 28.2 27.1 26.0 25.0 24.0 23.1 22.2 21.3 20.5 19.8 19.1 18.5 17.8 17.2 16.6
Brazil 30.4 28.5 26.8 25.1 23.5 22.0 20.7 19.5 18.4 17.5 16.7 16.0 15.4 14.9 14.6 14.2 15.0 13.8 13.6 13.3 13.1
United States 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4
Canada 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.4
Mexico 23.8 22.8 21.9 21.0 20.2 19.5 18.8 18.2 17.6 17.0 16.4 15.9 15.4 14.9 14.4 13.9 13.5 13.0 12.6 12.2 11.8
Australia 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1
New Zealand 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9

Footnotes

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Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg); World Development Indicators (The World Bank, Washington D.C.). Download date: October 3, 2022.
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