Countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Austria 8.01 8.04 8.08 8.12 8.17 8.23 8.27 8.30 8.32 8.34 8.36 8.39 8.43 8.48 8.55 8.64 8.74 8.80 8.84 8.88
Belgium 10.25 10.29 10.33 10.38 10.42 10.48 10.55 10.63 10.71 10.80 10.90 11.04 11.11 11.16 11.21 11.27 11.33 11.38 11.43 11.50
Bulgaria 8.17 8.01 7.84 7.78 7.72 7.66 7.60 7.55 7.49 7.44 7.40 7.35 7.31 7.27 7.22 7.18 7.13 7.08 7.03 6.98
Cyprus 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.81 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.86 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.88
Czechia 10.26 10.22 10.20 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.24 10.30 10.38 10.44 10.47 10.50 10.51 10.51 10.53 10.55 10.57 10.59 10.63 10.67
Denmark 5.34 5.36 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.42 5.44 5.46 5.49 5.52 5.55 5.57 5.59 5.61 5.64 5.68 5.73 5.76 5.79 5.81
Estonia 1.40 1.39 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.35 1.35 1.34 1.34 1.33 1.33 1.33 1.32 1.32 1.31 1.32 1.32 1.32 1.32 1.33
Finland 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.23 5.25 5.27 5.29 5.31 5.34 5.36 5.39 5.41 5.44 5.46 5.48 5.50 5.51 5.52 5.52
Francea 60.76 61.20 61.64 62.08 62.53 63.00 63.44 63.83 64.18 64.50 64.82 65.13 65.44 65.77 66.31 66.55 66.72 66.86 66.97 67.06
Greece 10.81 10.86 10.90 10.93 10.96 10.99 11.02 11.05 11.08 11.11 11.12 11.10 11.05 10.97 10.89 10.82 10.78 10.75 10.73 10.72
Netherlands 15.93 16.05 16.15 16.23 16.28 16.32 16.35 16.38 16.45 16.53 16.62 16.69 16.75 16.80 16.87 16.94 17.03 17.13 17.23 17.34
Croatia 4.47 4.30 4.31 4.31 4.31 4.31 4.31 4.31 4.31 4.31 4.30 4.28 4.27 4.25 4.24 4.21 4.17 4.13 4.09 4.07
Ireland 3.81 3.87 3.93 4.00 4.07 4.16 4.27 4.40 4.49 4.54 4.56 4.58 4.60 4.62 4.66 4.70 4.76 4.81
4.87b
4.93b
Poland 38.26 38.25 38.23 38.20 38.18 38.17 38.14 38.12 38.13 38.15 38.04 38.06 38.06 38.04 38.01 37.99 37.97 37.97 37.97 37.97
Latvia 2.37 2.34 2.31 2.29 2.26 2.24 2.22 2.20 2.18 2.14 2.10 2.06 2.03 2.01 1.99 1.98 1.96 1.94 1.93 1.91
Lithuania 3.50 3.47 3.44 3.42 3.38 3.32 3.27 3.23 3.20 3.16 3.10 3.03 2.99 2.96 2.93 2.90 2.87 2.83 2.80 2.79
Luxembourg 0.44 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.56 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.61 0.62
Hungary 10.21 10.19 10.16 10.13 10.11 10.09 10.07 10.06 10.04 10.02 10.00 9.97 9.92 9.89 9.87 9.84 9.81 9.79 9.78 9.77
Malta 0.39 0.39 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.43 0.43 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.50
Germany 82.21 82.35 82.49 82.53 82.52 82.47 82.38 82.27 82.11 81.90 81.78 80.27 80.43 80.65 80.98 81.69 82.35 82.66 82.91 83.09
Italy 56.94 56.97 57.06 57.31 57.69 57.97 58.14 58.44 58.83 59.10 59.28 59.38 59.54 60.23 60.79 60.73 60.63 60.54 60.42 60.30
Portugal 10.29 10.36 10.42 10.46 10.48 10.50 10.52 10.54 10.56 10.57 10.57 10.56 10.51 10.46 10.40 10.36 10.33 10.30 10.28 10.29
Romania 22.44 22.13 21.73 21.57 21.45 21.32 21.19 20.88 20.54 20.37 20.25 20.15 20.06 19.98 19.91 19.82 19.70 19.59 19.47 19.37
Spain 40.57 40.85 41.43 42.19 42.92 43.65 44.40 45.23 45.95 46.36 46.58 46.74 46.77 46.62 46.48 46.44 46.48 46.59 46.80 47.13
Sweden 8.87 8.90 8.92 8.96 8.99 9.03 9.08 9.15 9.22 9.30 9.38 9.45 9.52 9.60 9.70 9.80 9.92 10.06 10.18 10.28
Slovakia 5.39 5.38 5.38 5.37 5.37 5.37 5.37 5.37 5.38 5.39 5.39 5.40 5.41 5.41 5.42 5.42 5.43 5.44 5.45 5.45
Slovenia 1.99 1.99 1.99 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.02 2.04 2.05 2.05 2.06 2.06 2.06 2.06 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.09
EU27_2020 428.93 429.48 430.46 431.98 433.59 435.12 436.52 437.98 439.39 440.43 441.04 440.26 440.91 441.96 443.27 444.23 445.17 445.82
446.46b
447.27b
United Kingdom 58.89 59.12 59.37 59.65 59.99 60.40 60.85 61.32 61.81 62.28 62.77 63.26 63.70 64.13 64.60 65.12 65.61 66.06 66.46 66.84
EU28 487.82 488.60 489.83 491.62 493.58 495.52 497.37 499.31 501.19 502.70 503.81 503.52 504.61 506.09 507.88 509.35 510.78 511.88
512.92b
514.10b
Euro area–19 320.91 322.13 323.70 325.44 327.23 328.91 330.44 332.16 333.78 334.87 335.66 334.93 335.67 336.79 338.16 339.18 340.16 340.84
341.52b
342.35b
Iceland 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.36
North Macedonia 2.03 2.03 2.03 2.03 2.03 2.04 2.04 2.04 2.05 2.05 2.06 2.06 2.06 2.06 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.08
2.08b
Montenegro 0.60 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62
Norway 4.49 4.51 4.54 4.56 4.59 4.62 4.66 4.71 4.77 4.83 4.89 4.95 5.02 5.08 5.14 5.19 5.23 5.28 5.31 5.35
Russia 146.60 145.98 145.31 144.65 144.07 143.52 143.05 142.81 142.74 142.79 142.85 142.96 143.20 143.51 143.82 144.10 144.34 144.50 144.48 144.37
Switzerland 7.18 7.23 7.28 7.34 7.39 7.44 7.48 7.55 7.65 7.74 7.82 7.91 8.00 8.09 8.19 8.28 8.37 8.45 8.51 8.58
Serbia 7.52 7.50 7.50 7.48 7.46 7.44 7.41 7.38 7.35 7.32 7.29 7.23 7.20 7.16 7.13 7.10 7.06 7.02 6.98 6.95
Turkey 65.81 65.17 66.00 66.79 67.60 68.44 69.30 70.16 71.05 72.04 73.14 74.22 75.18 76.15 77.18 78.22 79.28 80.31 81.41 82.58
India 1,056.58 1,075.00 1,093.32 1,111.52 1,129.62 1,147.61 1,165.49 1,183.21 1,200.67 1,217.73 1,234.28 1,250.29 1,265.78 1,280.85 1,295.60 1,310.15 1,324.51 1,338.66 1,352.62 1,366.42
Israel 6.29 6.44 6.57 6.69 6.81 6.93 7.05 7.18 7.31 7.49 7.62 7.77 7.91 8.06 8.22 8.38 8.55 8.71 8.88 9.05
Japan 126.84 127.15 127.45 127.72 127.76 127.77 127.85 128.00 128.06 128.05 128.07 127.83 127.63 127.45 127.28 127.14 126.99 126.79 126.53 126.26
Chinac 1,262.65 1,271.85 1,280.40 1,288.40 1,296.08 1,303.72 1,311.02 1,317.89 1,324.66 1,331.26 1,337.71 1,344.13 1,350.70 1,357.38 1,364.27 1,371.22 1,378.67 1,386.40 1,392.73 1,397.72
Republic of Korea 47.01 47.37 47.64 47.89 48.08 48.18 48.44 48.68 49.05 49.31 49.55 49.94 50.20 50.43 50.75 51.01 51.22 51.36 51.61 51.71
South Africa 44.97 45.57 46.15 46.72 47.29 47.88 48.49 49.12 49.78 50.48 51.22 52.00 52.83 53.69 54.55 55.39 56.20 57.00 57.78 58.56
Egypt 68.83 70.15 71.49 72.83 74.17 75.52 76.87 78.23 79.64 81.13 82.76 84.53 86.42 88.40 90.42 92.44 94.45 96.44 98.42 100.39
Brazil 174.79 177.20 179.54 181.81 184.01 186.13 188.17 190.13 192.03 193.89 195.71 197.51 199.29 201.04 202.76 204.47 206.16 207.83 209.47 211.05
United States 282.16 284.97 287.63 290.11 292.81 295.52 298.38 301.23 304.09 306.77 309.32 311.56 313.83 315.99 318.30 320.64 322.94 324.99 326.69 328.24
Canada 30.69 31.02 31.36 31.64 31.94 32.24 32.57 32.89 33.25 33.63 34.00 34.34 34.71 35.08 35.44 35.70 36.11 36.54 37.06 37.59
Mexico 98.90 100.30 101.68 103.08 104.51 106.01 107.56 109.17 110.82 112.46 114.09 115.70 117.27 118.83 120.36 121.86 123.33 124.78 126.19 127.58
Australia 19.15 19.41 19.65 19.90 20.13 20.39 20.70 20.83 21.25 21.69 22.03 22.34 22.73 23.13 23.48 23.82 24.19 24.60 24.98 25.36
New Zealand 3.86 3.88 3.95 4.03 4.09 4.13 4.18 4.22 4.26 4.30 4.35 4.38 4.41 4.44 4.51 4.60 4.69 4.79 4.84 4.92

Footnotes

*
Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg); World Development Indicators (The Worldbank, Washington D.C.).
a
Including the overseas territories.
b
Estimated data.
c
Excluding Hongkong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan.
.