Country, group of countries 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Austria 9.8 9.4 9.7 9.5 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.2 9.3 9.2 9.4 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.6 9.8 10.0 10.0 9.7 9.6 9.4
Belgium 11.4 11.2 10.9 11.0 11.3 11.4 11.6 11.7 11.9 11.8 11.9 11.7 11.5 11.3 11.2 10.8 10.8 10.5 10.4 10.2 9.9
Bulgaria 9.0 8.5 8.5 8.7 9.1 9.3 9.7 10.0 10.4 10.9 10.2 9.6 9.5 9.2 9.4 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.5
Cyprus 12.2 11.6 11.1 11.3 11.4 11.2 11.6 11.2 11.7 11.9 11.8 11.3 11.8 10.8 10.9 10.8 11.1 10.7 10.7 10.8 11.1
Czechia 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.3 11.1 11.5 11.3 11.2 10.4 10.3 10.2 10.4 10.5 10.7 10.8 10.7 10.5 10.3
Denmark 12.6 12.2 11.9 12.0 12.0 11.9 12.0 11.7 11.8 11.4 11.4 10.6 10.4 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.8 10.6 10.6 10.5 10.4
Estonia 9.4 9.1 9.4 9.5 10.3 10.6 11.0 11.8 12.0 11.8 11.9 11.1 10.6 10.3 10.3 10.6 10.7 10.5 10.9 10.6 9.9
Finland 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.2 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.1 11.0 10.7 10.5 10.1 9.6 9.1 8.6 8.3 8.4
France 13.3 13.1 12.9 12.8 12.8 12.8 13.1 12.8 12.9 12.8 12.9 12.7 12.6 12.4 12.4 12.0 11.8 11.5 11.3 11.2 10.9
Greece 9.6 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.8 10.2 10.1 10.7 10.6 10.3 9.6 9.1 8.6 8.5 8.5 8.6 8.2 8.1 7.8
7.9a
Netherlands 13.0 12.6 12.5 12.3 11.9 11.5 11.3 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.1 10.8 10.5 10.2 10.4 10.1 10.1 9.9 9.8 9.8 9.7
Croatia 9.8 9.5 9.3 9.2 9.4 9.9 9.6 9.7 10.1 10.4 10.1 9.6 9.8 9.4 9.3 8.9 9.0 8.9 9.0 8.9 8.9
Ireland 14.4 15.0 15.4 15.4 15.2 14.8 15.3 16.2 16.7 16.7 16.5 16.2 15.6 14.9 14.4 13.9 13.4 12.9 12.5
12.0a
11.2a
Poland 9.9 9.6 9.3 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.8 10.2 10.9 10.9 10.9 10.2 10.1 9.7 9.9 9.7 10.1 10.6 10.2 9.9 9.4
Latvia 8.6 8.4 8.7 9.2 9.1 9.8 10.3 10.9 11.2 10.3 9.4 9.1 9.8 10.2 10.9 11.1 11.2 10.7 10.0 9.8 9.2
Lithuania 9.8 9.0 8.6 8.8 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.3 9.9 10.2 9.9 10.0 10.2 10.1 10.4 10.8 10.7 10.1 10.0 9.8 9.0
Luxembourg 13.1 12.4 12.0 11.7 11.9 11.5 11.7 11.4 11.5 11.3 11.6 10.9 11.3 11.3 10.9 10.7 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.0 10.2
Hungary 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.7 9.9 9.7 9.9 9.6 9.0 8.8 9.1 9.0 9.5 9.4 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.5 9.6
Malta 11.3 10.1 9.9 10.2 9.7 9.6 9.3 9.3 9.8 9.8 9.4 10.0 9.8 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.2 9.2 8.6 8.6
Germany 9.3 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.6 8.3 8.2 8.3 8.3 8.1 8.3 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.8 9.0 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.4 9.3
Italy 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.5 9.8 9.6 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.6 9.5 9.2 9.0 8.5 8.3 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.3 7.0 6.8
Portugal 11.7 10.9 11.0 10.8 10.4 10.4 10.0 9.7 9.9 9.4 9.6 9.2 8.5 7.9 7.9 8.3 8.4 8.4 8.5 8.4 8.2
Romania 10.4 10.0 9.7 9.8 10.1 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.8 10.9 10.5 9.7 10.0 9.4 10.0 10.2 10.4 10.8 10.4
10.3a
9.2a
Spain 9.8 9.9 10.1 10.4 10.6 10.6 10.8 10.9 11.3 10.6 10.4 10.1 9.7 9.1 9.2 9.0 8.8 8.4 7.9 7.6 7.1
Sweden 10.2 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.7 11.7 11.9 12.0 12.3 11.8 11.9 11.8 11.9 11.7 11.8 11.5 11.4 11.1 10.9
Slovakia 10.2 9.5 9.5 9.6 10.0 10.1 10.0 10.1 10.7 11.4 11.2 11.3 10.3 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.6 10.7 10.6 10.5 10.4
Slovenia 9.1 8.8 8.8 8.7 9.0 9.1 9.4 9.8 10.8 10.7 10.9 10.7 10.7 10.2 10.3 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.4 9.3 8.9
EU27_2020 10.5 10.2 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.6 10.5 10.4 10.1 10 9.7 9.8 9.7 9.8 9.7
9.5a
9.3a
9.1a
United Kingdom 11.5 11.3 11.3 11.7 11.9 12.0 12.3 12.6 12.9 12.7 12.9 12.8 12.8 12.1 12.0 11.9 11.8 11.4 11.0 10.7 ..
Iceland 15.3 14.4 14.1 14.3 14.5 14.4 14.5 14.6 15.2 15.8 15.4 14.1 14.1 13.4 13.4 12.5 12.0 11.9 12.0 12.3 12.3
North Macedonia 14.5 13.3 13.7 13.3 11.5 11.0 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.5 11.8 11.1 11.4 11.2 11.4 11.1 11.1 10.5 10.3 9.6 9.2
Montenegro 15.2 14.6 13.9 13.6 12.8 12.0 12.3 12.7 13.4 14.0 12.0 11.6 12.0 12.0 12.1 11.9 12.2 11.9 11.7 11.6 11.4
Norway 13.2 12.6 12.2 12.4 12.4 12.3 12.6 12.4 12.7 12.8 12.6 12.2 12.0 11.6 11.5 11.3 11.3 10.7 10.4 10.2 9.8
Russia 9.8 10.0 10.5 11.1 11.2 11.0 11.4 12.9 13.7 13.9 14.0 14.1 14.7 14.5 14.4 12.8 12.2 11.2 10.7 9.8 ..
Switzerland 10.9 10.0 9.9 9.8 9.9 9.8 9.8 9.9 10.0 10.1 10.3 10.2 10.3 10.2 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.3 10.3 10.0 9.9
Serbia 9.8 10.5 10.4 10.6 10.5 9.7 9.6 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.4 9.1 9.3 9.2 9.3 9.3 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.3 8.9
Turkey 21.1 20.3 18.6 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.1 18.4 18.2 17.5 16.9 16.7 17.0 16.8 17.3 16.9 16.5 16.1 15.3 14.3 13.3
India 26.4 25.9 25.5 25.0 24.6 24.1 23.6 23.0 22.4 21.8 21.1 20.5 19.9 19.4 19.0 18.6 18.3 18.1 17.9 17.6 ..
Israel 21.7 21.2 21.2 21.7 21.3 20.8 21.0 21.1 21.5 21.5 21.8 21.4 21.6 21.3 21.5 21.3 21.2 21.1 20.8 20.1 ..
Japan 9.4 9.3 9.3 9.2 8.7 8.4 8.7 8.6 8.7 8.5 8.5 8.3 8.2 8.2 8.0 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.4 7.0 ..
China 14.0 13.4 12.9 12.4 12.3 12.4 12.1 12.1 12.1 12.1 11.9 11.9 12.1 12.1 12.4 12.1 13.0 12.4 10.9 10.5 ..
Republic of Korea 13.5 11.7 10.3 10.2 9.8 9.0 9.2 10.1 9.4 9.0 9.4 9.4 9.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 7.9 7.0 6.4 5.9 ..
Egypt 26.0 25.6 25.3 25.0 24.9 24.8 25.0 25.4 25.9 26.6 27.3 27.9 28.3 28.5 28.5 28.2 27.7 27.1 26.4 25.7 ..
Brazil 20.1 19.5 19.0 18.4 17.8 17.2 16.7 16.3 15.9 15.6 15.3 15.1 14.9 14.8 14.6 14.5 14.3 14.1 13.9 13.7 ..
United States 14.4 14.1 14.0 14.1 14.0 14.0 14.3 14.3 14.0 13.5 13.0 12.7 12.6 12.4 12.5 12.4 12.2 11.8 11.6 11.4 ..
Canada 10.7 10.7 10.5 10.6 10.5 10.6 10.9 11.2 11.3 11.3 11.1 11.0 11.0 10.8 10.8 10.7 10.6 10.3 10.1 9.9 ..
Mexico 23.9 23.4 23.0 22.6 22.2 21.7 21.3 21.0 20.6 20.3 20.0 19.8 19.5 19.2 18.9 18.6 18.2 17.9 17.6 17.3 ..
Australia 13.0 12.7 12.8 12.6 12.3 12.8 12.9 14.1 14.0 13.9 13.7 13.6 13.7 13.3 13.2 12.9 12.9 12.6 12.6 12.1 ..
New Zealand 14.7 14.4 13.7 13.9 14.2 14.0 14.1 15.2 15.1 14.5 14.7 14.0 13.9 13.2 12.7 13.2 12.6 12.4 11.8 12.0 ..

Footnotes

*
Source: Eurostat (Luxembourg); World Development Indicators (The World Bank, Washington D.C.). Download date: October 1, 2021.
a
Estimated figure.
.