To increase the stock of scientific knowledge on man, society, environment and technology is an important tool to improve the quality of life and competitiveness. These activities are covered by R&D statistics, providing information among others on the number of research and development units, employment in R&D activities, the amount and sources of expenditure as well as the results of research and development. We collect data on the innovation activities of enterprises – relying on the results of R&D in many cases – every two years, in the frame of the innovation survey of the Community, harmonised at EU level.
R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP
Amount of R&D expenditure (R&D current costs and R&D capital expenditure) as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP) in a particular year.
R&D capital expenditure as a percentage of investments in the national economy
R&D capital expenditure as a proportion of total economic investments in current year. R&D capital expenditure is the value (excluding VAT) of purchases in the current year of tangible assets and computer software used directly in research and development activities.
Enterprises which engaged at some time during the observed period in one or more innovation activities to develop or implement new or improved products or business processes for an intended use, as a proportion of all enterprises employing at least 10 people. Innovation activities include all developmental, financial and commercial activities undertaken by an enterprise that are intended for or result in an innovation for the enterprise.
1.61% of GDP was spent on R&D on a national scale in 2020. This activity is quite concentrated from a territorial angle: the highest expenditure as a proportion of GDP was recorded for Veszprém County, having a relatively substantial industrial base, as well as the capital, featuring a wide range of innovative economic activities and outstandingly significant tertiary education. Besides, this indicator exceeded the national average in two more counties (Csongrád-Csanád and Hajdú-Bihar Counties), home to considerable universities.
Research and development expenditures continued to grow in 2020, first of all due to foreign and enterprise resources. The growth rate (9.0%) surpassed that of the GDP calculated at current prices (0.5%), in consequence the expenditure to GDP ratio (1.6%) reached the highest value of the last 30 years. The number of research locations diminished in one year, at the same time the proportion of researchers in relation to total emloyees continued to increase.
The yearbook presents how demographic, socio-economic trends and environmental characteristics changed over time in Hungary. The main indicators are illustrated in time series or regional comparisons by charts and maps; the interactive versions of these are available on our website. Spatial disparities among counties and regions as well as international indicators are presented in separate chapters. The internet annex contains the publication in PDF format and all tables in Excel format.
In 2017, HUF 517 billion, 1.35% of GDP was spent on research and development activities at the level of the national economy. Nearly 74% of research and development expenditure came from the activities of business enterprises at the level of the national economy, R&D units in higher education as well as R&D institutes and other budgetary research units accounted for 13% each. The significant part of tender resources of 2016 were used in 2017, as a result of which R&D expenditure financed from the government budget rose to the highest extent, by nearly HUF 53 billion (by 47%) at current prices. R&D expenditure financed by the sources of business enterprises rose by HUF 31 billion (by 13%). Out of the financial sources of R&D expenditure only the amount of funds from non-profit organisations that decreased, by 10.5% over a year.